Isomerization of bitter acids during the brewing process

Michal P. Dybowski, Rafal Typek, Katarzyna Bernacik, Andrzej L. Dawidowicz

Abstract


Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage. The transformation of bitter acids to iso-α and iso-ß-acids is recognized as the key step of beer production. The paper shows and discusses the transformation kinetics of α- and ß-acids into their iso-form. Following the performed experiments, the largest amounts of the bitter acids isomers are formed in the brewing process carried out at 80oC for more than 100 minutes. The presented data are in good agreements with the knowledge of experienced brewers who learned about the brewing process relying on sensory tests.

Keywords


bitter acids; isomerization; brewing process; wort preparation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Y. Huang, J. Tippmann and T. Becker, International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, 3, 47-52, (2013).

M. G. Malowicki, T. H. Shellhammer, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53, 4434-4439, (2005).

J. Urban, C. Dahlberg, B. Carroll and W. Kaminsky, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 52, 1553-1555, (2013).

L. Royle, J. M. Ames, C. A. Hill and D. S. J. Gardner, Food chemistry, 74, 225-231, (2001).

A. C. J. Hermans-Lokkerbol, A. C. Hoek and R. Verpoorte, Journal of chromatography A, 771, 71-79, (1997).

R. Hampton, G. Nickerson, P. Whitney and A. Haunold, Phytochemistry, 61, 855-862, (2002).

C. A. Blanco, A. Rojas, P. A. Caballero, F. Ronda, M. Gomez, I. Caballero, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17, 373-377, (2006).

M. Goese, K. Kammhuber, A. Bacher, M. H. Zenk, W. Eisenreich, The Federation of European Biochemical Societies Journal, 263, 447–454, (1999).

J. De Keukeleire, G. Ooms, A. Heyerick, I. Roldan-Ruiz, E. Van Bockstaele, D. De Keukeleire, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 4436–4441, (2003).

K. Huvaere, M.L. Andersen, M. Storme, J. Van Bocxlaer, L.H. Skibsted, D. De Keukeleirel, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 53, 1489-1494 (2005).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/aa.2015.70.2.137
Data publikacji: 2016-02-15 12:20:04
Data złożenia artykułu: 2016-02-15 11:52:13

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2016 Michal P. Dybowski, Rafal Typek, Katarzyna Bernacik, Andrzej L. Dawidowicz