Innovativeness in Organizations: The Role of LMX and Organizational Justice. The Case of Poland

Agnieszka Wojtczuk-Turek, Dariusz Turek


The subject of the paper is the analysis of chosen determinants of innovative behaviors in the workplace (IWB). Particular focus was placed on the examination of relations between IWB and leader-member exchange (LMX), and organizational justice. Theoretical premises and empirical studies to date suggest that both LMX and organizational justice positively correlate with IWB. The examination of the variables with regard to IWB was conducted in isolation, however, which indicates that it does not verify how LMX and organizational justice jointly explain IWB. In order to analyze the problem, a  survey was conducted on 201 employees of Polish firms. The analyses confirmed a  positive correlation between IWB and LMX (r = 0.38; p < 0.01), and between IWB and organizational justice (r = 0.36; p < 0.01). The obtained results confirmed the postulated research hypotheses. However, regression analyzes indicated that both independent variables introduced into the model, despite their significant mutual interrelation, do not cause an increase in the explanation of variance of the results for IWB. It was explained by suggesting that the chosen set of variables, in which one variable functions as a  mediator, does not explain IWB linearly, but structurally.


innovative workplace behaviour (IWB); leader-member exchange (LMX); organizational justice

Full Text:



Adams, S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 267–299). New York: Academic Press.

Agarwal, U. A., Datta, S., Blake-Beard, S., & Bhargava, S. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behaviour and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work engagement. Career Development International, 17(3), 208–230.

Amabile, T. M. (1979). Effects of external evaluations on artistic creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 221–233.

Amabile, T. M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. In B. M. Shaw &

L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 10 (pp. 123–167). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Amabile, T. M., & Gryskiewicz, N. D. (1989). The creative environment scales work environment inventory. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 231–253.

Amabile, T. M., Schatzel, E. A., Moneta, G. B., & Kramer, S. J. (2004). Leaders behaviors and the work environment for creativity: Perceived leader support. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(1), 5–32.

Ansari, M. A., Hung, D. K. M., & Aafaqi, R. (2007). Leader-member exchange and attitudinal outcomes: role of procedural justice climate. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(8), 690–709.

Bies R. J. (2001). Interactional (in)justice: The sacred and the profane. In J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in organizational justice (pp. 89–118). California: Stanford University Press.

Bies, R. J. (2005). Are procedural justice and interactional justice conceptually distinct? In J. Greenberg & J. A. Cologuit (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 85–112). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P.E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 278–321.

Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 425–445.

Colquitt, J. A., Greenberg, J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2005) What is organizational justice? a Historical overview. In J. Greenberg & J. A. Cologuit (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 3–56). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Colquitt, J. A., & Shaw, J. C. (2005). How should organizational justice be measured. In J. Greenberg & J. A. Cologuit (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 113–152). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., Mohler, C. J., & Schminke, M. (2001). Three roads to organizational justice. In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management, 20 (pp. 1–113). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Cropanzano, R., Mitchell, M.S. (2005). Social exchange theory: an interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–900.

de Jong, J. P. J., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2007). How leaders influence employees’ innovative behaviour. European Journal of Innovation Management, 10(1), 41–64.

Deluga, R. J., & Perry J. T. (1997). The relationship of subordinate upward influencing behaviour. Satisfaction and perceived superior effectiveness with leader-member exchange. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 239–252.

Dienesch, R. M., & Liden, R. C. (1986). Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618–634.

Eisenberger, R., & Selbst, M. (1994). Does reward increase or decrease creativity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1116–1127.

Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P.D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42–51.

Erdogan, B., Liden, R.C., Kraimer, M.L. (2006). Justice and leader-member exchange: The moderating role of organizational culture. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 395–406.

Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827–844.

Greenberg J. (2011). Behavior in organizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Gupta, V., Singh, S., Kumar, S., Bhattacharya A. (2012). Linking leadership to employee creativity: A study of Indian R&D laboratories. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 48(1), 120–136.

Henderson, D.J., Liden, R.C., Glibkowski, B.C., & Chaudhry, A. (2009). LMX differentiation: A multilevel review of its antecedents and outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(4), 517–534.

Homans, G.C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt.

Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 73(3), 287–302.

Janssen, O. (2004). How fairness perceptions make innovative behavior more or less stressful, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(2), 201–215.

Janssen, O. (2005). The joint impact of perceived influence and supervisor supportiveness on employee innovative behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(4), 573–579.

Kanter, R. (1988). When a thousand flowers bloom: Structural, collective, and social conditions for innovation in organizations. In B. M. Shaw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 10 (pp. 169–211). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

King, N., & Anderson, N. (2002). Managing innovation and change: A critical guide for organizations. London: Thomson.

Kleysen, R.F., & Street, C.T. (2001). Toward a multi-dimensional measure of individual innovative behavior. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2(3), 284–296.

Liao, H., Liu, D., & Loi, R. (2010). Looking at both sides of the social exchange coin: a social cognitive perspective on the joint effects of relationship quality and differentiation on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1090-1109.

Liden, R. C., & Maslyn J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: an empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24, 43–72.

Masterson, S. S., Lewis, K., Goldman, B. M., & Taylor, M. S. (2000). Integrating justice and social exchange: the differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships, Academy of Management Journal, 43, 738–748.

Mumford, M.D., & Licuanan, B. (2004). Leading for innovation: Conclusions, issues, and directions. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 163–171.

Muñoz-Doyague, M. F., & Nieto, M. (2012). Individual creativity performance and the quality of interpersonal relationships. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 112(1), 125–145.

Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of mentoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 36(3), 527–256.

Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: Personality and contextual factors at work. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 607–634.

Prahalad, C.K., & Krishnan, M.S. (2008). The new age of innovation: Driving co-created value through global networks. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. C., Slattery, T., & Sardessai, R. (2005). Determinants of innovative work behaviour: development and test of an integrated model. Creativity & Innovation Management, 14(2), 142–150.

Rank, J., Nelson, N., Allen, T., & Xu, X. (2009). Leadership predictors of innovation and task performance: Subordinates’ self-esteem and self-presentation as moderators. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 465–489.

Rutherford, M.W., & Holt, D.T. (2007). Corporate entrepreneurship, an empirical look at the innovates dimension and its antecedents. Journal of Organizational Changes Management, 20(3), 429–446.

Sanders, K., Moorkamp, M., Torka, N., Groeneveld, S., & Groeneveld, C. (2010). How to support innovative behaviour? The role of LMX and satisfaction with HR practices. Technology and Investment, 1, 59–68.

Scandura, T. A. (1999). Rethinking leader-member exchange: an organizational justice perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 25–40.

Scott, S.G., & Bruce, R.A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behaviour: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 580–607.

Shaw, J. C., Wild, E., & Colquitt, J. A. (2003). To justify or excuse? A meta-analytic review of the effects of explanations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 444–458.

Shih, H., & Susanto E. (2011). Is innovative behavior really good for the firm?: Innovative work behavior, conflict with coworkers and turnover intention: moderating roles of perceived distributive fairness. International Journal of Conflict Management, 22(2), 111–130.

Simmons, A. L. (2011). The influence of openness to experience and organizational justice on creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 23(1), 9–23.

Slåtten, T. (2011). Antecedents and effects of employees‘ feelings of joy on employees‘ innovative behaviour. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 3(1), 93–109.

Tekleab, A.G., R. Takeuchi, & Taylor, M.S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 146–157.

Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum 1975.

Van de Ven, A. H. (1986). Central problems in the management of innovation. Management Science, 32, 590–607.

van den Bos, K. (2005), What is responsible for the fair process effect. In J. Greenberg & J. A. Colquitt (Eds.), Handbook of organizational justice (pp. 273–300). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wang, X., Liao, J., Xia, D., & Chang, T. (2010). The impact of organizational justice on work performance: Mediating effects of organizational commitment and leader-member exchange. International Journal of Manpower, 31(6), 660–677.

Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82–111.

Walumbwa, F. O., Cropanzano, R., & Hartnell, Ch. A. (2009). Organizational justice, voluntary learning behavior, and job performance: a test of the mediating effects of identification and leader-member exchange. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 1103–1126.

West, M.A., & Farr, J.L. (1989). Innovation at work: Psychological perspective. Social Behaviour, 4, 15–30.

Young, L. D. (2012). How to promote innovative behavior at work? the role of justice and support within organizations. Journal of Creative Behavior, 46(3), 220–243.

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: the role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323–342.

Data publikacji: 2013-07-14 00:00:00
Data złożenia artykułu: 2015-07-18 02:47:18


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Agnieszka Wojtczuk-Turek, Dariusz Turek

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.