Selected Manifestations of Discrimination as Perceived by Male Employees in Polish Companies: A Self-Study Research Account

Bartłomiej Zinczuk


Purpose – The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of unequal treatment of men employed in Polish enterprises and the level of knowledge possessed by the employees in terms of the rights of discriminated persons.
Methodology – A survey was carried out using a survey questionnaire which included a total of 304 male employees in 12 surveyed enterprises, holding managerial and specialist positions, located in various functional areas of the organization.
Findings – The research confirmed the phenomenon of discrimination against men in the workplace and low level of respondents’ knowledge on the rights of discriminated persons. The answers provided by male respondents show that the most frequently encountered type of discrimination in order of indication was discrimination on grounds of education, age, sex, while the least indicated kind of discrimination concerned disability.
Research implications – The findings of this study may serve as a starting point to discover the causes of the phenomenon of discrimination in the workplace.
Practical implications – The findings of this study may be used by employers to develop programs against discrimination and to educate employees in identifying and responding to cases of unequal treatment in the workplace.
Social implications – The findings of this study may increase the general knowledge on the phenomenon of discrimination in the workplace.
Originality/Value – The article complements the knowledge on the selected manifestations of discrimination, the prevalence of unequal treatment of men in their working life and the level of knowledge possessed by the respondents in terms of the rights of discriminated persons.
Type of article – A research article.


discrimination, unequal treatment, stereotypes, employee

Full Text:



Barcik, J. and Wentkowska, A. (2008). Prawo Unii Europejskiej z uwzględnieniem Traktatu z Lizbony (European Union Law Including the Treaty of Lisbon), C.H. Beck, Warsaw, p. 284.

Berg, N. and Lien, D. (2002). Measuring the Effect of Sexual Discrimination on Income: Evidence or Discrimination?, Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 394–414.

Bilkis, A., Habib, S. B. and Sharmin, T. (2010). A Review of Discrimination in Employment and Workplace, ASA University Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 137.

Deitch, E. A., Barsky, A., Butz, R. M., Chan, S., Brief, A. P. and Bradley, J. C. (2003). Subtle Yet Significant: The Existence and Impact of Everyday Racial Discrimination in the Workplace, Human Relations, Vol. 56, No. 11, SAGE Publications, pp. 1299–1324.

Dovidio, J. F., Hewstone, M., Glick P. and Esses, V. M. (2010). Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination: Theoretical and Empirical Overview, The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination, SAGE Publications LTD, London, p. 9.

Equality at work: The continuing challenge. Global Report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, (2011). International Labour Conference, 100th Session Report I(B) Geneva, p. 9. Retrieved from:

Gee, G. C., Ryan, A., Laflamme, D. J. and Holt, J. (2006). Self-Reported Discrimination and Mental Health Status Among African Descendants, Mexican Americans, and Other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: The Added Dimension of Immigration, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 10, pp. 1821–1828.

Hajian, S. and Domingo-Ferrer, J. (2013). A Methodology for Direct and Indirect Discrimination Prevention in Data Mining, IEEE Transactions On Knowledge And Data Engineering, Vol. 25, No. 7, p. 1445.

Kadiresan, V. and Javed, N. K. (2015). Discrimination in Employment and Task Delegation at Workplace in the Malaysian Context, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 7, p. 30.

Mazanowska, E. (2013). Pathologies of Motivation System – Reasons and Consequences, Contemporary Economy Electronic Scientific Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3, p. 31.

Moczydłowska, J. M. and Kowalewski, K. (2015). Stereotyp pracownika w wieku 50+ jako potencjalne źródło zachowań dyskryminacyjnych w środowisku pracy (The Stereotype of 50+ Aged Employee as a Potential Source of Discriminatory Behavior in the Workplace), Modern Management Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 73.

Pager, D. and Shepherd, H. (2008). The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, p. 182.

Pager, D. and Western B. (2012). Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 68, No. 2, p. 221.

Pincus, F. L. (1996). Discrimination Comes in Many Forms: Individual, Institutional, and Structural, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 40, No. 2, p. 186.

Richert-Kaźmierska, A. and Stankiewicz, K. (2013). Kompetencje pracowników 55+ w opinii pracowników z młodszych grup wiekowych (Competencies of 55+ Aged Employees in the Opinion of Employees from Younger Age Groups), E-mentor, No. 1/48.

Sozański, J. (2005). Prawa człowieka w systemach prawnych Wspólnot i Unii Europejskiej (Human Rights in the Legal Systems of the Communities and the European Union), Polish Publisher Legal Iuris, Warsaw–Poznań, p. 198.

The Polish Labour Code, Art. 183a § 1.

Vickers, L. (2010). Religious Discrimination in the Workplace: An Emerging Hierarchy?, Ecclesiastical Law Society, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 280–303.

Wencel, K. (2011). Dowodzenie w sprawach o dyskryminację. Możliwości i ograniczenia udowodnienia nierównego traktowania (Proving in Cases of Discrimination. The Possibilities and Limitations of Proving Unequal Treatment), The Association for Legal Intervention. Analyses, Reports, Expertise, No. 7, p. 3.

Zawidzka-Łojek, A. (2013). Zakaz dyskryminacji ze względu na wiek w prawie Unii Europejskiej (Prohibition of Discrimination Based on Age in European Union Law), Instytut Wydawniczy EuroPrawo, Warsaw, p. 48.

Data publikacji: 2017-05-23 10:49:42
Data złożenia artykułu: 2017-05-23 10:31:54


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Bartłomiej Zinczuk

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.