Is Management a Science or an Art? From Theory to Practice of Management

Wiesław Maria Grudzewski, Zofia Wilimowska

Abstract


Purpose – The purpose of this article is to discuss and show that management is a science, not just an art. Decision-making in the enterprise requires talent and special skills supported by the right qualifications. According to Tatarkiewicz, management can be considered as an art, which can be interpreted as follows: “(...) man’s conscious creation is a work of art always when it recreates reality, shapes forms, or expresses experience, yet it is able either to delight, or touch, or shock” (Tatarkiewicz, 1972). On the other hand, the company management is understood as a continuous process of making decisions based on reliable knowledge, observations and experiences – it is, therefore, a science, and modern managers are not just passive consumers of research knowledge, but also its creators. Contemporary theories focus attention on constructing appropriate models, which support the decisions of managers allowing them to somehow “spy” and observe the effects of their decisions. The aim of the paper is to show that in the modern economy, design models to support the management of the enterprise is the science that uses the achievements of other sciences, creative adaptation of these achievements in modeling phenomena occurring in the world economy. The aim of this article is to show that management sciences are increasingly exploiting modern knowledge to build models for developing practical concepts of management systems.

Design/Methodology/Approach – The authors present the review of mathematical models, computer models (used in situations where the analytical models cannot find the best solution), and in particular artificial intelligence algorithms and selected models of dynamic system for managing the organization and some examples of applications.

Findings – The results obtained show that in the management sciences, many models are used to support managerial decisions. Of course, the achievements of other sciences are very often used, management is of an application, but also of scientific nature, because, in order to skillfully use knowledge from other fields, decision-making models should be developed to solve problems in management and allow to use the achievements of these other areas.

Research limitations/implications – The limitations of this paper result from the fact that only selected models are presented in the article. The authors hope that these selected models will be the argument that management science is becoming more and more science and not an art only.

Originality/Value – This paper presents the review of modern methods used in management sciences to show that modern management is more a science than an art.


Keywords


management; models; artificial intelligence; neural networks; agent; risk

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bryłka, M., Świątkowski, Ł. (2007). Algorytmy genetyczne i sieci neuronowe. Z. Wilimowska, Seminarium z Zarządzania ryzykiem, Politechnika Wrocławska, Wydział Informatyki i Zarządzania, Wrocław.

Czarnecka, A., Wilimowska, Z. (2018). Hurst Exponent as a Risk Measurement on the Capital Market. In: J. Świątek et al., Information Systems Architecture and Technology. Proceedings of 38th International Conference on Information Systems Architecture and Technology, ISAT 2017, 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357; vol. 656, Springer, Berlin.

Domaradzki, R. http://bossa.pl/analizy/techniczna/elementarz/sieci_neuronowe [access: 29.03.2007].

Franklin, S., Graesser, A. (1996). Is it an Agent, or just a Program? A Taxonomy for Autonomous Agents. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Grudzewski, W.M., Hejduk, I.K., Sankowska, A., Wańtuchowicz, M. (2013). Sustainability w biznesie, czyli przedsiębiorstwo przyszłości. Zmiany paradygmatów i koncepcji zarządzania, Poltext, Warszawa.

Grudzewski. W.M., Wilimowska. Z. (2017). Od teorii do praktyki zarządzania. Czy zarządzanie jest nauką czy sztuką? [From Theory to Management Practice. Is Management a Science or an Art?]. Organizacja i Kierowanie [Organization and Management], nr 1(175), Komitet Organizacji i Zarządzania PAN, Szkoła Główna Handlowa Kolegium Zarządzania i Finansów, Warszawa.

Kiłyk, A., Wilimowska, Z. (2010). Multi-stage model for selection of a short-term stock portfolio using the DMA method. In: J. Świątek et al. (eds.), Information systems architecture and technology: System analysis approach to the design, control and decision support, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocławskiej, Wrocław, pp. 25–35.

Mandelbrot, B.B. (1967). How long is the coast of Britain? Statistical self - similarity and fractal dimension. Science, no. 155, pp. 636–638.

Russell S., Norvig, P. (1995). Artificial Intelligence. A Modern Approach, Prentice-Hall, USA.

Tatarkiewicz, W. (1972). Droga przez estetykę, PWN, Warszawa.

Wenger, D., Probst, A.R. (2002).Adding Value with Intelligent Agents in Financial Services. In: N. Jennings, M. Wooldridge (Eds.), Agent Technology, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 303–325.

Wilimowska, Z., Wilimowski, M. (2002). Sztuka zarządzania finansami, wyd. OPO, Bydgoszcz.

Wilimowska, Z. (2003). Przedsiębiorstwo jako dynamiczny portfel biznesów. In: I.K. Hejduk (ed.), Przedsiębiorstwo przyszłości – nowe paradygmaty zarządzania europejskiego, Instytut Organizacji i Zarządzania w Przemyśle „Orgmasz” pp. 229–246, Warszawa.

Wilimowska, Z. (2004). Risk modelling in value based management. Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference 2004 [Dokument elektroniczny], Gold Coast, Australia, 12–15 December 2004, ed. by E. Kozan, Brisbane: School of Mathematical Sciences. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane Australia.

Wilimowska, Z., Krzysztoszek, T. (2013). The use of artificial neural networks in company valuation process. In: N.T Nguyen, et al., Advanced methods for computational collective intelligence, Springer, Berlin–Heidelberg, pp. 279–288, vol. 457, 4th International Conference on Computational Collective Intelligence Technologies and Applications (ICCCI 2012), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 28–30, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34300-1_27

Wilimowska, Z., Tomczak, S.K, Wilimowski, M. (2016). Selected methods of risk modelling in management process. In: Information Systems Architecture and Technology. Proceedings of 37th International Conference on Information Systems Architecture and Technology, ISAT 2016, Z. Wilimowska, L. Borzemski, A. Grzech, J. Świątek (Eds.), Springer, Berlin.

[I] Słownik internetowy, hasło „nauka”, http://www.cotojest.info/nauka_574.html [02.03.2017].

[II] Słownik języka polskiego PWN, hasło „sztuka”, http://sjp.pwn.pl/szukaj/sztuka.html [02.03.2017].

[III] Słownik języka polskiego PWN, hasło „twórca”, http://sjp.pwn.pl/szukaj/tworca.html [02.03.2017].

[IV] Słownik języka polskiego PWN, hasło „nauka”, http://sjp.pwn.pl/szukaj/nauka.html [02.03.2017].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/ijsr.2017.0.6.5
Data publikacji: 2018-04-25 11:09:13
Data złożenia artykułu: 2018-02-01 12:28:31

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Zofia Wilimowska

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.