Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni phytotoxicity assessment

Nataliia Olexandraivna Ryzhenko, Sergiy Volodymyrovich Kavetsky, Volodimir Mycolayovich Kavetsky


In this paper, we investigate using of probit analysis for heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni) toxicity assessment for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in sod podzolic sandy loam and chernozem soils. Estimation of the heavy metals phytotoxicity by means of PhLD50 value was suggested. The PhLD50 value is a doze of metal in soil that causes 50% reduction of plant biomass (mg·kg-1). According to PhLD50 value, metals can be ranked by the effect on biomass reduction as: Cd>Cu>Ni>Co>Pb>Zn (sod podzolic soil) and Cd>Cu>Ni>Co>Zn>Pb (chernozem soil). Results of the study could be useful indicators of Cu, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb and Zn phytotoxicity assessment at the growing of Hordeum vulgare (L.) in heavy metals contaminated areas. The PhLD50 value demonstrates the comparative toxicity of metals. Tight correlation between studied metals phytotoxicity for plants of spring barley and polarity shift caused by adding to organic matrix – diphenilthiocarbazone (ditizone) for studied metals was observed. This approach may be prominent for metals risk assessment. This work is an attempt to extend our investigations on correlation and methods of polarity assessment and ecotoxicological risk of different groups of contaminants.


heavy metals, phytotoxicity, probit analysis, ecotoxicological assessment, LD50, PTD50, pollution, dipole moment, barley plants

Full Text:



C. C. Kaonga, J. Kumwenda, H. T. Mapoma (2010) Accumulation of lead, cadmium, manganese, copper and zinc by sludge worms; Tubifex tubifex in sewage sludge Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7 (1), pp. 119-126

X. Zhang, A. J. Lin, F. J. Zhao, G. Z. Xu, G. L. Duan, and Y. G. Zhu (2008) Arsenic accumulation by the aquatic fern Azolla: comparison of arsenate uptake, speciation and efflux by A. caroliniana and A. filiculoides Environmental Pollution, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 1149–1155.

Mukti Gill (2014) Heavy metal stress in plants: a review International Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 2, Issue 6, pp. 1043-1055.

Kabata-Pendias, A., Mukherjee, A.B. (2007) trace Elements from Soil to Human. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Valavanidis A., Vlachogiani Th. (2010) Metal Pollution in ecosystems. Ecotoxicology Studies and Risk Assessment/ A. Valavanidis, Th. Vlachogiani //Science advances on Environment, Toxicology and Ecotoxicology issues:

Ryzhenko N., Kavetsky V.(2015) Assessment of heavy metal’s (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni) toxicity for plants by polarity of their dytizonates and LD50 Agroecol. J. , Kyiv, №3, pp.52-60.

Ryzhenko N. O. (2012). Bioaccumulation of Рb, Cd, Zn, Cu in the condition of impact pollution – ecotoxicology criteria of environment quality, Kyiv, J. of ecological sciences, №1, 46-55, (10 pages),

Brian J. Alloway (Editor) (2010) Heavy metals in soils. Trace elements and Metalloids in Soils and their Bioavailability. Third edition, Alloway Brian J., UK, Springer, (235 pages).

Monika Jakubus (2012) Phytotoxicity and speciation of copper and nickel in composted sewage sludge J. Elem. (DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2012.17.1.04): pp. 43–56.

Stephen G. Wu1, Li Huang1, Jennifer Head, Da-Ren Chen1, In-Chul Kongand Yinjie J. Tang (2012) Phytotoxicity of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles is Related to Both Dissolved Metals Ions and Adsorption of Particles on Seed Surfaces J Pet Environ Biotechnol, 3:4,

Domingo Horacio Campaña, Milena Esther Uribe Echevarría, Ariel Oscar Airasca and María Luisa Andrade Couce (2014) Physicochemical and Phytotoxic Characterisation of Residual Sludge from the Malting of Barley J. Pollut. Eff. Cont., 2:2,

Wang QR1, Cui YS, Liu XM, Dong YT, Christie P.(2003) Soil contamination and plant uptake of heavy metals at polluted sites in China J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng.;38(5):pp. 823-838.

J. Liu, C.-Q. Duan, Y.-N. Zhu, X.-H. Zhang, and C.-X. Wang (2007) “Effect of chemical fertilizers on the fractionation of Cu, Cr and Ni in contaminated soil,” Environmental Geology, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1601–1606

Rombke, Jorg, Moltmann, Johann F. (1996). Applied Ecotoxicology, Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, 38-45.

Marlon Escoto Valerio, Juan Fernández García, Francisco Martín Peinado (2007) Determination of phytotoxicity of soluble elements in soils, based on a bioassay with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Science of the Total Environment, 378: 63–66.

A. A. Azimi, T. Navab Daneshmand and A. Pardakhti (2006) Cadmium absorption and accumulation in different parts of kidney beans, radishes and pumpkins Int. J. Environ. Sacli.. Tech., Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 177-184.

Ilyin V.B., Syso A.I. (2001) Microelements and Heavy Metals in soils and plants at Novosibirsk region V.B.Ilyin, A.I. Syso, Novosibirsk, RAS, pp. 30-31

G. F. Mantorova (2010) Heavy metals in soil and plant production under conditions of anthropogenic pollution Agro X X I , № 1–3, pp.52-54.

Wang Xuejiang chen Ling, Xia Siqing,Zzhao Jianfu (2008) Changes of Cu, Zn, and Ni chemical speciation in sewage sludge co-composted with sodium sulfide and lime Journal of Environmental Sciences 20(2008), pp. 156–160

M. Mar Delgado1, José V. Martin, Rosario Miralles De Imperial, Cristina León-Cófreces, M. Cruz. García (2010) Phytotoxicity of uncomposted and composted poultry manure African Journal of Plant Science Vol. 4(5), pp. 154-162.

Hira Amin, Basir Ahmed Arain, Farah Amin, Muhammad Ali Surhio (2013) Phytotoxicity of Chromium on Germination, Growth and Biochemical Attributes of Hibiscus esculentus L. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, pp. 2431-2439,

Bliss C.I. (1934) The method of probits/ C.I. Bliss //. Science.- vol.79 (2037): 38–39.

Dospekhov B.A. (1985) Methodology of field experiment B.A. Dospekhov, Мoscow: Agropromizdat, pp. 313-316.

Kavetsky V.M., Ryzhenko N.O. (2008) Physical and Chemical Criteria for Pesticides Determination and Risk Assessment in Ecosystem/V.M. Kavetsky, N.O. Ryzhenko//PolishJ.Chem. Vol.82. – P.361-369.

Kruk L.S., Kavetsky V.M. (1999) Harvest Pesticides Pollution assessment depend on its polarity Agroecology and Biotechnology J., - Kyiv, p.357.

Kavetsky V.M., Bublik L.I. (1989) Using Think Layer chromatography for organic substances dipole moment determination // Physical Chemistry J, 13 (4). – p. 1021.

V.V. Medvedev, T.M. Laktionova, S.A. Bal’uk, N.M. Blokhina, V.O. Bililypsky (1998) Method of monitoring of lands which are in the crisis state, Kharkiv, O.N. Sokolovsky’ Institute of soil science, (88 pages).

Kavetsky V.N., Makarenko N.A., Buogis A.M. Kavetsky S.V. (2001) Thin Layer Chromatography Methods of the Hg, Zn, Co, Cd, Cu, Ni determination in soil, plant and water, № 50-97, Methodic of determination pesticides residues in food, forage and environment, Kyiv, P. 18-23.

Kavetsky V.M., Bublik L.I. (1987) Determination of organic substances dipole moment. A.P.№ 1296930 USSR А1G01N30/9615.11 VNIIGPE. - №3753317/23-25, №10, 15.03.1987

Kamran Sardar, Shafaqat Ali, Samra Hameed, Sana Afzal, Samar Fatima, Muhammad Bilal Shakoor, Saima Aslam Bharwana, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer (2013) Heavy Metals Contamination and what are the Impacts on Living Organisms Greener Journal of Environmental Management and Public Safety, Vol. 2 (4), pp. 172-179.

Ducic T., Polle А. (2005) Transport and detoxification of manganese and copper in plants // Braz. J. Plant Physiol. – vol.17 no.1.

Ebrahem M. Eid1, Mohamed A. El-Sheikh, Abdulrahman A. Alatar (2012) Uptake of Ag, Co and Ni by the Organs of Typha domingensis (Pers.) Poir. ex Steud. in Lake Burullus and Their Potential Use as Contamination Indicators Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 2, pp. 21-27; Published Online January 2012 (

Urszula Kukier, Rufus L. Chancy (2004) In Situ Remediation of Nickel Phytotoxicity for Different Plant Species J. OF Plant Nutrition, Vol. 27, No. 3: pp. 465-495

Soil Guideline Values for nickel in soil. Science Report SC050021 / Nickel SGV (2009) Environment Agency:

Alia Naz1, Sardar Khan, Muhammad Qasim1, Salma Khalid1, Said Muhammad, Muhammad Tariq (2013). Metals toxicity and its bioaccumulation in purslane seedlings grown in controlled environment, Natural Science, Vol.5(5), 573-579, (6 pages),

Soldatova N.A., Khryanini V.N. (2008). Influence of lead salts on growing processes in plants Cannabis Sativa L, J. News of PGPU, Section of young scientist, № 6(10)2008, pp. 215-218.

P. Mamatha, S. Salamma, A. V. N. Swamy, and B. Ravi Prasad Rao (2014) Quantitative and risk analysis of heavy metals in selected leafy vegetables, Der Pharma Chemica, 6(3), 179-185, (7 pages),

Deepmala Satpathy, M. Vikram Reddy, and Soumya Prakash Dhal (2014) Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India, BioMed Research International, Volume 2014 , (11 pages),

Eghoshina T.L., Shikhova L.N. (2008) Lead in soil and plant at northern west part of European Russia // Announcer of ONU, № 10(92). – pp. 135-141.

Somova L.A., Pechurkin N. S. (2009) The influence of microbial association on germination on wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of Zn salts growth of seedling under impact of of Zn salts Space research, №8, pp. 1224-1228.

Nicholson, F.A., Chambers, B.J. and Alloway, B.J. (1997). Effect of soil pH on heavy metal bioavailability. Proceeding of Fourth International Conference on the Bio-geochemistry of Trace Elements, Berkeley, 23-26 June 1997, pp. 499-500.

Águeda González, M. Carmen Lobo (2013). Growth of Four Varieties of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals and Their Effects on Some Physiological Traits. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 1799-1810, (11 pages),, Published Online September 2013 (

Jay Forrest, Paul Bazylewsky, Robert Bauer, Seongjin Hong, ChangYong Kim, John P.Giesy, Jong Seong Khim, and Gap Soo Chang (2014) A comprehensive model for chemical bioavailability and toxicity oforganic chemicals based on first principles Marine science, vol. 1, art.31, pp.1-7;

Date of publication: 2018-01-15 09:23:52
Date of submission: 2017-03-27 08:57:08


Total abstract view - 1674
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 668



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Nataliia Olexandraivna Ryzhenko, Sergiy Volodymyrovich Kavetsky, Volodimir Mycolayovich Kavetsky

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.