Spatio-Temporal Variability of Soil Beta-glucosidase Activity at the Arable Field Scale

Anna Piotrowska-Długosz, Jacek Długosz


Knowledge about the spatio-temporal variability of soil enzymatic properties is crucial in evaluating their structure-function relationship and their impact on ecosystem functions. The aim of this study was to assess the spatio-temporal variability of soil β-glucosidase (BG) activity against selected physico-chemical properties at the arable fild scale. A grid soil sampling (10×10 m) was used to measure the spatial variation of soil properties across a 0.4-ha fild. The BG activity was analyzed in soil samples that were collected from the upper 20 cm of Luvisols at 50 locations in April and August 2007 and 2008. Additionally, total organic carbon (CORG), total nitrogen (NTOT) concentrations, soil pHKCl as well as texture and water content were determined. The dataset was analyzed using classical statistical and geostatistical methods. Based on the analysis of variance, it was found that the BG activity, CORG, and water content showed signifiant differences between the four sampling dates. The BG activity showed a high contribution of nugget effect in sill (over 50%) and revealed a moderate spatial structure. The range of spatial autocorrelation calculated for the BG activity was between 15.0 and 61.0 m. Less intensive sampling grid should be recommended for soil BG activity in further studies concerning spatial variability in arable fild scale. In turn, more frequent sampling must be included in the sampling strategy in order to better understand whether the BG activity always shows permanent spatial patterns in soil or whether it is more randomized.


b-glucosidase, geostatistics, spatial variability, temporal

Full Text:



Aşkin, T., Kizilkaya, R., 2006. Assessing Spatial Variability of Soil Enzyme Activities in Pasture Topsoils Using Geostatistics. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42: 230–237.

Baldrian, P., 2014. Distribution of Extracellular Enzymes in Soil: Spatial Heterogeneity and Determining Factors at Various Scales. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 78: 11–18.

Bishop, T.F.A., Lark, R.M., 2006. The Geostatistical Analysis of Experiments at the Landscape-Scale. Geoderma, 133: 87–106.

Bell, C.W. Acosta-Martinez, V., McIntyre, N.E., Cox, S., Tissue, D.T., Zak, J.C., 2009. Linking Microbial Community Structure and Function to Seasonal Differences in Soil Moisture and Temperature in a Chihuahuan Desert Grassland. Microbial Ecology, 58: 827–842.

Böhme, L., Böhme, F., 2006. Soil Microbiological and Biochemical Properties Affected by Plant Growth and Different Long-Term Fertilisation. European Journal of Soil Biology, 42: 1–12.

Burgos, P., Madejón, E., Pérez-de-Mora, A., Cabrera, F., 2006. Spatial Variability of the Chemical Characteristics of a Trace-Element-Contaminated Soil before and after Remediation. Geoderma, 130: 157–175.

Burt, R., 2004. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual, Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 42, version 4.0, USDA-NRCS, Nebraska: Lincoln.

Dashtban, M., Maki, M., Leung, K.T., Mao, C., Qin, W., 2010. Cellulase Activities in Biomass Conversion: Measurement Methods and Comparison. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 30: 302–309.

Dotaniya, M.L., Kushwash, S.K., Rajendiran, S., Coumar, M.V., Kundu, S., Subba Rao, A., 2014. Rhizosphere Effect of Kharif Crops on Phosphatases and Dehydrogenase Activities in a Typic Haplustert. National Academy Science Letters, 37, 2: 103–106.

Eivazi, F., Tabatabai, M.A., 1988. Glucosidases and Galactosidases in Soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20: 601–606.

El-Naggar, E., Coyne, M., Phillips, T., 2010. Spatial Variability of Soil Enzymes in a Sinkhole Undergoing Forage Transition.19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1–6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia.

Franklin, R.B., Mills, A.L., 2009. Importance of Spatially Structured Environmental Heterogeneity in Controlling Microbial Community Composition at Small Spatial Scales in an Agricultural Field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41: 1833–1840.

Goovaerts, P., 2010. Geostatistical software. In: M.M. Fischer, A. Getis (eds.), Handbook of Applied Spatial Analysis: Software Tools, Methods and Applications, 1 st ed., Berlin–Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 125–134.

Goux, X., Amiaud, B., Piutti, S., Philippot, L., Benizri, E., 2012. Spatial Distribution of the Abindance and Activity of the Sulfate Ester-Hydrolyzing Microbial Community in a Rape Field. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 12: 1360–1370.

Haruna, S.I., Nkongolo, N.V., 2013. Variability of Soil Physical Properties in a Clay-Loam Soil and Its Implication on Soil Management Practices. ISRN Soil Science, vol. 2013, article ID 418586, 1–8.

Hinsinger, P., Plassard, C., Jaillard, B., 2006. Rhizosphere: A New Frontier for Soil Biogeochemistry. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 88: 201–213.

IUSS Working Group WRB, 2007. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006 – first update 2007. World Soil Resources Reports No. 103, FAO, Rome.

Jeelani, J., Kirmani, N.A., Sofi J.A., Mir, S.A., Wani, J.A., Rasool, R., Sadat, S., 2017. An Overview of Spatial Variability of Soil Microbiological Properties Using Geostatistics. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 4: 1132–1145.

Kang, H., Freeman, C., 1999. Phosphatase and Arylsulphatase Activities in Wetland Soils: Annual Variation and Controlling Factors. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 449–454.

Kerry, R., Oliver, M.A., 2007. Comparing Sampling Needs for Variograms of Soil Properties Computed by the Method of Moments and Residual Maximum Likelihood. Geoderma, 140:


Kerry, R., Oliver, M.A., Frogbrook, Z.I., 2010. Sampling in Precisian Agriculture. In: M.A. Oliver (ed.) Geostatistical Application for Precisian Agriculture, Springer Science + Business Media B.V., pp. 34–63.

Karydas, C.G., Gitas, I.Z., Koutsogiannaki, E., Lydakis-Simantris, N., Silleos, N., 2009. Evaluation of Spatial Interpolation Techniques for Mapping Agricultural Topsoil Properties in Crete. EARSel eProceedings, 8, 1: 26–39.

Ladwig, L.M., Sinsabaugh, R.L., Collins, S.L., Thomey, M.L., 2014. Soil Enzyme Responses to Varying Rainfall Regimes in Chihuahuan Desert Soils. Ecosphere, 6, 3, Article 40, p. 10.

Paul, E.A. 2007. Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Peigné, J., Vian, J.F., Cannavacciuolo, M., Bottollier, B., Chaussod, R., 2009. Soil Sampling Based on Field Spatial Variability of Soil Microbial Indicators. European Journal of Soil Biology, 45: 488–495.

Piotrowska, A., Koper, J., 2010. Soil β-glucosidase Activity under Winter Wheat Cultivated in Crop Rotation Systems Depleting and Enriching the Soil in Organic Matter. Journal of Elementology, 15, 3: 593–600.

Piotrowska, A., Długosz, J., 2012. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Microbial Biomass Content and Activities Related to Some Physicochemical Properties of Luvisols. Geoderma, 173–174: 199–208.

Piotrowska-Długosz, A., Siwik-Ziomek, A., Długosz, J., Gozdowski, D., 2017. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Soil Sulfur Content and Arylsulfatase Activity at a Conventionally Managed Arable Field. Geoderma, 295: 107–118.

Puissant, J., Cecillon, L., Mills, R.T.E., Robroek, B.J.M., Gavazov, K., DeDanieli, S., Spiegelberger, T., Buttler, A., Brun, J.J., 2015. Seasonal Effects of Climate Manipulation on Microbial Community Structure and Function in Mountain Soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 80: 296–305.

Saibi, W., Abdeljalil, S., Gargouri, A., 2011. Carbon Source Directs the Differential Expression of β-glucosidases in Stachybotrys Microspora. World Journal of Microbiology and Technology, 27: 1765–1774.

Shahandeh, H., Wright, A.L., Hons, F.M., 2005. Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Nitrogen Parameters Related to Soil Texture and Corn Yield. Agronomy Journal, 97: 772–782.

Staugaitis, G., Šumskis, D., 2011. Spatial Variability of Soil pH as Inflenced by Different Soil Sampling Methods and Geostatistical Techniques. Žemdirbystė-Agriculture, 98: 323–332.

Stott, D.E., Andrews, S.S., Liebig, M.A., Wienhold, B.J., Karlen, D.L., 2009. Evaluation of β-Glucosidase Activity as a Soil Quality Indicator for the Soil Management Assessment Framework. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74: 107–119.

Štursova, M., Baldrian, P., 2011. Effects of Soil Properties and Management on the Activity of Soil Organic Matter Transforming Enzymes and the Quantifiation of Soil-Bound and Free Activity. Plant and Soil, 338: 99–110.

Wallenstein, M.D., McMahon, S.K., Schimel, J.P., 2009. Seasonal Variation in Enzymes Activities and Temperature Sensitivities in Arctic Tundra Soils. Global Change Biology, 15, 7: 1631–1639.

Wang, R., Lü, L., Creamer, C.A., Dijkstra, F.A., Liu, H., Feng, X., Yu, G., Han, X., Jiang, Y., 2017. Alteration of soil carbon and nitrogen pools and enzyme activities as affected by increased soil coarseness. Biogeosciences, 14: 21–55–2166.

Wilding, L.P., 1985. Spatial Variability: Its Documentation, Accommodation, and Implication to Soil Surveys. In: D.R. Nielsen, J. Bouma (eds.), Soil Spatial Variability,1 st ed., Wageningen: Pudoc, pp. 166–194.

Zhang, S., Huffman, T., Zhang, X., Liu, W., Liu, Z., 2014a. Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrient at Depth in Black Soil of Northeast China: A Case Study of Soil Available Phosphorus and Total Phosphorus. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 14: 1775–1789.

Zhang, Z., Hu, B., Hu, G., 2014b. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Chemical Properties in a Subtropical Karst Forest, Southwest China. The Scientifi World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 473651, 1–9.

Data publikacji: 2017-11-17 11:41:05
Data złożenia artykułu: 2017-05-24 23:29:16


Total abstract view - 593
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 325



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Anna Piotrowska-Długosz, Jacek Długosz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.