Influence of the Distance Between a Reflectance Sensor and Soil Samples with Different Roughness on Their Spectra

Karolina Herodowicz

Abstract


The study assessed the influence of the distance between a reflectance sensor and soil samples with various roughness states (R1– the lowest, R2 – the medium, R3 – the highest roughness state) on their spectra level, under laboratory condition. Studied soil samples were illuminated at three light source zenith angles (θs equal to 20°, 40°, 60°) and observed by the sensor to the nadir, from various distances (Hs) from 10 to 54 cm. These dark (the Mollic Gleyic Fluvisol) and light (the Cutanic Stagnic Luvisol) soil materials with their minimum roughness were characterized by diffused reflectance spectra. The relative differences (RD) between the spectra level of soil samples with R1, R2, R3 roughness states and the diffused reflectance level of soil materials were calculated with 1 nm interval in range of 420–2,300 nm. Higher roughness state and higher θs, result in higher RD. Thus, for the dark and light soil samples with R3 roughness state and illuminated at θs= 60°,the RD are the highest reached 63 and 39% (Hs=54 cm) and reached 77 and 63% (Hs=10 cm), respectively. The spectra level of the soil samples in R1 and R3 roughness states, illuminated at θs=20° and soil samples with R1 roughness, illuminated at θs=60°, reached a stable level, at a specific Hs. It means, that a spectra does not significantly change with a further increase Hs. However, the soil samples in R3 roughness, illuminated at θs=60° have not reached the stability.

Keywords


spectra level, sensor’s distance, soil roughness state, illuminate light source, zenith angle, relative difference

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adamchuk, V.I., Hummel, J.W., Morgan, M.T., Upadhyaya, S.K., 2004. On-the-go soil sensors for precision agriculture. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 44 (1): 71–9.

Baumgardner, M.F, Silva, L.F., Biehl, L.L., Stoner, E.R., 1985. Reflectance properties of soils. Adv. Agron., 38: 1–44.

Borges, J.A.R., Pires, L.F., Costa, J.C., 2014. Representative elementary length to measure soil mass attenuation coefficient. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. The Scientific World Journal, ID 584871.

Bowers, S.A., Hanks, R.J., 1965. Reflection of radiant energy from soils. Soil Sci., 2: 130–138.

Brown, D.J., Shepherd, K.D., Walsh, M.G., Mays, M.D., Reinsch, T.G., 2006. Global soil characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Geoderma, 32: 273–290.

Cécillon, L., Cassagne, N., Czarnes, S., Gros, R., Brun, J.-J., 2008. Variable selection in near infrared spectra for the biological characterization of soil and earthworm casts. Soil Biol. Biochem., 40(7): 1975–1979.

Cierniewski, J., 1987. A model for soil surface roughness influence on the spectral response of bare soils in the visible and near infrared range. Remote Sens. Environ., 23: 97–115.

Cierniewski, J., 1999. Geometrical modeling of soil bidirectional reflectance in the optical domain. Bogucki Scientific Publishers, Poznań.

Cierniewski, J., Verbrugghe, M., Marlewski, A., 2002. Effects of farming works on soil surface bidirectional reflectance measurements and modeling. Int. J. Remote Sens., 23(6): 1075–1094.

Cierniewski, J., Gdala, T., Karnieli, A., 2004. A hemispherical-directional reflectance model as a tool for understanding image distinctions between cultivated and uncultivated bare surfaces. Remote Sens. Environ., 90(4): 505–523.

Cierniewski, J., Kuśnierek, K., 2010. Influence of several soil properties on soil surface reflectance. Quaestiones Geographicae, 29(1): 13–25.

Courault, D., Girard, M.C., 1988. Relationships between the soil composition and the spectral signatures. Proceeding 5th Symposium of the ISSS Working Group on Remote Sensing for Soil Survey, Budapest, Hungary: 178–185.

Gholizadeh, A., Borůvka, L., Saberioon, M., Vasšát, R., 2013. Visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectroscopy applications for soil assessment with emphasis on soil organic matter content and quality: State-of-the-art and key issues. Appl. Spectrosc., 67(12): 1349–1362.

Kuang, B., Mahmood, H.S., Quraishi, M.Z., Hoogmoed, W.B., Mouazen, A.M., van Henten, E.J., 2012. Sensing soil properties in the laboratory, in situ, and on-line. A review. Adv. Agron., 114: 155–223.

Marzahn, P., Rieke-Zapp, D., Ludwig, R., 2012. Assessment of soil surface roughness statistics for microwave remote sensing applications using a simple photogrammetric acquisition system. ISPRS J. Photogramm., 72: 80–89.

Matthias, A.D., Fimbres, A., Sano, E.E., Post, D.F., Accioly, L., Batchily, A.K., Ferreira, L.G., 2000. Surface roughness effects on soil albedo. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 64(3): 1035–1041.

Mikhajlova, N.A., Orlov, D.S., 1986. Optical properties of soils and soil components (in Russian). Moskva, Russia, Nauka: 35–38.

Musick, H.B., Pelletier, R.E., 1986. Response of some Thematic Mapper band rations to variation in soil water content. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 52(10): 1661–1668.

Piekarczyk, J., Kaźmierowski, C., Królewicz, S., Cierniewski, J., 2016. Effects of soil surface roughness on soil reflectance measured in laboratory and outdoor conditions. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing,9(2).

Reeves, III. J.B., 2010. Near- versus mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for soil analysis emphasizing carbon and laboratory versus on-site analysis: Where are we and what needs to be done? Geoderma, 158(1–2): 3–14.

Richter, N., Chabrillat, S., Kaufmann, H., 2005. Preliminary analysis for soil organic carbon determination from spectral reflectance in the frame of the EU project DeSurvey. Pages 96–101 in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing in the Assessment of Land Degradation and Desertification (RGLDD), Trier.

Skidmore, E.L., Dickerson, J.D., Shimmelpfennig, H., 1975. Evaluating surface-soil water content by measuring reflectance. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39(2): 238–242.

Soriano-Disla, J.M., Janik L.J., Viscarra Rossel, R.A., MacDonald, L.M., McLaughlin M.J. 2014. The Performance of Visible, Near-, and Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Prediction of Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 49(2): 139–186, DOI: 10.1080/05704928.2013.811081

Stevens, A., van Wesemael, B., Bartholomeus, H., Rosillon, D., Tychon, B., Ben-Dor, E., 2008. Laboratory, field and airborne spectroscopy for monitoring organic carbon content in agricultural soils. Geoderma, 144: 395–404.

Świderska, M., 2015. Soil surface roughness parameters and size of a soil area, in which they are calculated (in Polish), MA thesis, Poznań.

Thomsen, L.M., Baartman, J.E.M., Barneveld, R.J., Starkloff, T., Stolte J., 2015. Soil surface roughness: comparing old and new measuring methods and application in a soil erosion model. Soil Journal, 1: 399–410.

VandenBygaart, A.J., Protz, R., 1998. The representative elementary area (REA) in studies of quantitative soil micromorphology. Geoderma, 89(1999): 333–346.

Viscarra Rossel, R.A., Adamchuk, V.A., Sudduth, K.A., McKenzie, N.J., Lobsey, C., 2011. Proximal soil sensing: A spectrum of opportunities. Adv. Agron., 113: 237–283.

Vivid 910i Laser Scanner User Manual. Japan: Konica Minolta Sensing, 2001–2006.

Wu, C.-Y., Jacobson, A.R., Laba, M., Baveye, P.C., 2009. Accounting for surface roughness effects in the near-infrared reflectance sensing of soils. Geoderma152(1–2): 171–180.

Wallace, K.S., 1986. Surface roughness effects on soil spectral reflectance. University of Arizona, http://hdl.handle.net/10150/275522, p. 144.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/pjss.2016.49.2.133
Data złożenia artykułu: 2017-06-08 12:04:08

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Karolina Herodowicz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.