Scientific bases of the humus stabilization in ordinary chernozem in Russia

Oleg Goryanin, Anatoly Chichkin, Baurzhan Dzhangabaev, Elena Shcherbinina

Abstract


The influence of long-term use of mineral and organic fertilizers, crop rotations, plant residues, soil treatment systems on humus content of common chernozems and stabilization of productivity of field crops in the arid conditions of the Middle Volga region is considered on the example of researches in the Samara area. The zone climate of field experiments is characterized as extremely continental. The sum of the active temperatures (above 10°C) is 2,800-3,000°C. The average annual rainfall is 454.1 mm with fluctuations over the years from 187.5 mm to 704.6 mm. At some years, precipitation does not happen within a month or more. Hydrothermal index in May-August is 0,7, the duration of the frost-free period is 149 days. If the humus content in the region is 4.35-4.52%, then, it is necessary to introduce 6.7-8.0 t/ha of manure per year to maintain the balance of the deficit. The introduction of biological methods for the conservation and reproduction of soil fertility (green fertilizers, perennial grasses, straw as fertilizer) reduces the loss of humus by 0.15-0.24 t/ha. This makes it possible to increase the payback of mineral fertilizers, which must be taken into account when developing fertility reproduction systems for soils. In the variants with minimal and differentiated cultivation of the soil during crop rotation in 30 years of the study, the loss of humus in the 0-30 cm layer decreased by 0.04 - 0.73% (43-789 kg per year with maximum values in the combination of direct seeding of spring crops with deep loosening for a number of crop rotations is 4.14%, significantly exceeding the control (by 0.54%). The decrease in soil fertility in the variants with constant plowing and minimal tillage contributed to an increase in the conjugation of productivity of crops with humus. Based on the research, in order to preserve the fertility of the soil of ordinary chernozem, it is necessary to use green fertilizer, leguminous perennial grasses. In the regional rotations of crop production, new generation technologies are recommended, the basis of which is differentiated tillage with the use of crushed straw as fertilizer.


Keywords


humus, fertilizers, crop rotation, tillage systems, yield

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/pjss.2019.52.1.113
Data publikacji: 2019-05-29 07:57:44
Data złożenia artykułu: 2018-08-23 08:40:33

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