Water holding properties and soil water types in fine textured Vertisol soils of Thrace region in Turkey

Recep Çakir


The study was carried out on 16 selected model soil profiles, located on lands covered with soils exhibiting vertic properties in Thrace Region of Turkey. Different horizons and/or sub-horizons of 16 characteristic soil profiles were evaluated in field or laboratory conditions in terms of water holding capacity and water types properties. Total of 105 soil samples were analyzed for routine physical characteristics. Soil water holding capacity was determined applying negative potentials (Ψ) of -0.33 bar, -15.5 bar and -31.5 bar (pF 2.54; 4.2 and 4.5), using a pressure-membrane extraction apparatus. In addition to gravitational, available, unavailable and hygroscopic soil water types, the soil samples were investigated also in terms of crystal-lattice water content. The highest amounts of the listed water types were determined in soils of Büyük Mandira, Türkgeldi and Seymen containing the highest rates of smectite clay mineral. The mass percentage (Pw) rates of the mentioned water types of the investigated profies varied in the ranges of 29.1–66.3%, 10–2.15%, 22.0–32.4%, 6.0–9.0% and 5.6–8.6%, respectively. Though the mass percentages of enumerated water types in the soils of Osmanli and Yeni Mahalle, all owning high sand and lower clay content on the other hand, are between 28.9–40.6%, 6.1–15.5%, 7.4–16.8%, 2.4–4.8% and 1.7–4.4%, respectively.


cracking soils, texture, clay, hydraulic properties

Full Text:



Astatke, A., Mohammed, M.A., Walker, A., 1995. Soil water dynamics under cereal and forage legume mixtures on drained Vertisols in the Ethiopian Highlands. Agricultural Water Management, 27: 17–24.

Black, C.A.,1965. Methods of soil analysis. Part I–II. ASA Publication, No 9. Madison, Wisconsin.

Cangir, C., 1985. Fundamentals of land use planning and rural land problems in Tekirdağ province (in Turkish). Publications of Istanbul Branch of Turkish Association for Nature Protection, 8: 1–15.

Cangir, C., 1987. Rural area problems of Thrace region (in Turkish). Proceedings of 10th Scientific Meeting of Soil Science Association of Turkey. 30 June – 4 July 1987. Ataturk Rural Services Research Institute, Kirklareli.

Cooper, M., Rosa, D.J., Medeiros, J.C., de Oliveira, T.C., Toma, R.S., Juhas, C.E.P., 2012. Hydro-physical characterization of soils under tropical semi-deciduous forest. Scienta Agricola, 69(2): 152–159.

Çakir, R., 1993. The place of Brown, Grumusol and Alluvial soils located in Kirklareli plain in Soil Taxonomy Classification (in Turkish). Trakya University, Institute for Natural Sciences, MSc. Thesis (83) S. Edirne.

Çakir, R., 1997. Determination of the place of Thrace region Vertisol soils in the Soil Taxonomy and evaluations in terms of soil and water engineering (in Turkish). Trakya University, Institute for Natural Sciences, PhD Thesis, 210 pages, Edirne.

Debnath, P., Deb, P., Sen, D., Pattannaik, S.K., Sah, D., Ghosh, S.K., 2012. Physico-chemical properties and its relationship with water holding capacity of cultivated soils along altitudinal gradient in Sikkim. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, 5(1): 99–102.

Ekinci, H., Cangir, C, Yuksel, O., 1993. The problems of agricultural soils containing high amounts of smectite clay mineral (in Turkish). Proceedings of the Sixth National Clay Symposium, 8–11 September 1993. Bogaziçi University, Istanbul

Hindistan, M., 1978. Determination of the effect of saline ground irrigation water on Vertisol soils of Babaeski – Kirklareli (in Turkish). Publications of the Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Ankara

Hulme, P.J., McKenzie, D.C., Abbott, T.S., McLeod, D.A., 1991. Changes in the physical properties of Vertisol following an irrigation of cotton as influenced by the previous crop. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 29: 425–442.

Islam, M.S., Salokhe, V.M., Gupta, C.P., Hoki, M., 1994. Effects of PTO powered disk tilling on some physical properties of Bangkok clay soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 32: 93–104.

Kaczmarek, Z., Owczarzak, W., Mocek, A., Gajewski, P., 2013. The inflence of various means of tillage simplifid modifiation on selected physical and water properties of the arable-humus horizon in a mineral soil. Polish Journal of Soil Science, 46(1): 51–59.

Kaczmarek, Z., Gajewski, P., Owczarzak, W., Glina, B., Wozniak, T., 2017. Physical and water properties of arable soils located in the area of a predicted depression cone of “Tomislawice” lignite open cast-mine (Central Poland). Polish Journal of Soil Science, 50(2): 167–174

McKenzie, D.C., Abbott, T.C., Higginson, F.R., 1994. The effect of irrigated crop production on the properties of a sodic vertisol. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 29: 443–453.

Munsuz, N.,1982. Soil-Water Relationships (in Turkish). Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Publication No 798, Ankara.

Özkan, I., Akalan, I., 1976. The Relationships among sSome properties of surface horizons of the Thrace soils (in Turkish). Agricultural Engineering, 119. Ankara .

Richards, L.A, 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. United States Department of Agriculture, Handbook, 60:94.

Smedema, L.K., 1984. Furrow irrigation for vertisols. Agricultural Water Management, 9: 211–218.

Soil Survey Staff. 1992. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. SMSS Technical Monograph. No. 19. Fifth Edition. Pocahontas Press, Inc., Blackburg, Virginia.

TOPRAKSU. 1974. The soils of Meriç basin in Turkey (in Turkish). Publications No. 122 of the Ministry of Rural Affairs, General Directorate Publications No. 205, Basin No: 1, Report series 6. Ankara.

Toth, B., Mako, A., Toth, G., 2014. Role of soil properties in water retention characteristics of main Hungarian soil types. Journal of Central European Agriculture, 15(2): 137–153.

Tuzuner, A., 1990. Handbook of Soil and Water Analysis Laboratories (in Turkish). Publications of the General Directorate of Rural Services. Ankara.

Zurovec, J., Cadro, S. 2014. Soil-water characteristics curve and retention of water for different types of agricultural soils in Tuzla canton. Works of the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Sarajevo, LXI(66/1): 392–397.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/pjss.2019.52.2.247
Data publikacji: 2019-11-21 12:59:41
Data złożenia artykułu: 2019-01-10 15:28:47


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Recep Çakir

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.