Optimizing the use of the PHYTOTOXKIT test to assess the toxicity of soil contaminated with creosote

Wojciech Filip Kucaj, Kacper Rygielski, Krystyna Cybulska


Soil phytotoxicity studies were performed with different doses of creosote by means of the PHYTOTOXKIT test, using Sinapis alba, Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum as test plants. The obtained results indicate highly signifiant effect of the creosote dose, duration of soil incubation, type of test plant and period, after which the root length measurement was performed during the phytotoxicity index root test. The analysis of results indicates the highest sensitivity of Sorghum saccharatum to creosote and the highest correlation of results obtained with the aid of Lepidium sativum when measuring the root length after the fist day the seeds are lined with the size of the dose. The proposed mathematical model makes it possible to predict the reaction of test plants on the size of creosote dose as well as to assess its amount in the soil based on the root phytotoxicity. These results allow for a signifiant simplifiation of the test and shorten its duration. This allows the modifid test to be used for simple monitoring of not only the phytotoxicity but also the creosote residues during reclamation of contaminated soil.


phytotoxkit, plants, creosote, mathematical model

Full Text:



Abdel-Shafy, H.I., Mansour, M.S.M., 2016. A revive on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25: 107–123.

Atagana, H.I., 2004a. Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil in South Africa by landfarming. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96: 510–520.

Atagana, H.I., 2004b. Biodegradation of phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol and p-cresol by indigenous soil fungi in soil contaminated with creosote. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 20: 851–858.

Atagana, H.I., Haynes, R.J., Wallis, F.M., 2003. Optimization of soil physical and chemical conditions for the bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil. Biodegradation, 14: 297–307.

Ciesielczuk, T., Rosik-Dulewska, C., Poluszyńska, J., Miłek, D., Szewczyk, A., Sławińska, I., 2018. Acute toxicity of experimental fertilizers made of spent coffee grounds. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 9: 2157–2164.

Guerin, T.F., 1999. Bioremediation of phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote contaminated soil using ex-situ land treatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, B65: 305–315.

Kanarbik, L., Blinova, I., Sihtmäe, M., Künnis-Beres, K., Kahru, A., 2014. Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 21(19): 11320–11330.

Kästner, M. Breuer-Jammali, M., Mahro, B., 1994. Enumeration and characterization of the soil microflra from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil sites able to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 41: 267–273.

Kopeć, M., Baran, A., Mierzwa-Hersztek, M., Gondek, K., Chmiel, M.J., 2017. Effect of the addition of biochar and coffee grounds on the biological properties and ecotoxicity of composts. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 9(8): 1389–1398.

Phytotoxkit, 2004. Seed germination and early growth microbiotest with higher plants. Standard Operational Procedure. MicroBioTests Inc., Nazareth, p. 24.

Radziemska, M., Vaverkova, M.D., Mazur, Z., 2017. Pilot scale use of compost combined with sorbents to phytostabilize Ni-contaminated soil using Lolium perenne L. Waste and Biomass Valorization, DOI: 10.1007/s12649-017-0166-9.

Rasmussen, G., Olsen, R.A., 2004. Sorption and biological removal of creosote contaminants from groundwater in soil/sand vegetated with orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata). Advances in Environmental Research, 8: 313–327.

Sekutowski, T., Sadowski, J., 2009. PhytotoxkitTM microbiotest used in detecting herbicide residue in soil. Environment Protection Engineering, 35(1): 105–110.

Šestinová, O., Finforáková, L., Hančuľák, J., 2012. Toxicity testing of sediments. Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica, 11(2): 111–116.

Steliga, T., Kluk, D., 2017. Assessment of the composition of pollution of soil contaminated with TPH and PAHs for the development of the bioremediation technology, A.J. Kozak (ed.), Instytut Nafty i Gazu – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Kraków.

Sundi, M.I., 2015. Rapid assessment of toxic effects of pollutants from soil. Constanta Maritime University Annals, XVI(23): 77–80.

Tarnawski, M., Baran, A., 2018. Use of chemical indicators and bioassays in bottom sediment ecological risk assessment. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 74(3): 395–407.

Törneman, N., Yang, X., Bååth, E., Bengtsson, G., 2008. Spatial covariation of microbial community composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration in a creosote-polluted soil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27(5): 1039–1046.

Viñas, M., Sabaté, J., Espuny, M.J., Solanas, A.M., 2005. Bacterial community dynamics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation during bioremediation of heavily creosote-contaminated soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(11): 7008–7018.

Weir, S.C., Dupuis, S.P., Providenti, M.A., Lee, H., Trevors, J.T., 1995. Nutrient-enhanced survival of and phenanthrene mineralization by alginate-encapsulated and free Pseudomonas sp. UG14Lr cells in creosote-contaminated soil slurries. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 43: 946–951.

Wieczorek, D., Kwapisz, E., Marchut-Mikołajczyk, O., Bielecki, S., 2012. Phytotests as tools for monitoring the bioremediation process of soil contaminated with diesel oil. BioTechnologia. Journal of Biotechnology, Computational Biology and Bionanotechnology, 93(4): 431–439.

Wierzbicka, M., Bemowska-Kałabun, O., Gworek, B., 2015. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks. Biotechnology, 24: 805–822.

Wołejko, E., Wydro, U., Łoboda, T., 2016. The ways to increase efficiency of soil bioremediation. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 23(1): 155–174.

Zemanek, M.G., Pollard, S.J., Kenefik, S.L., Hrudey, S.E., 1997. Toxicity and mutagenicity of component classes of oils isolated from soils at petroleum- and creosote-contaminated sites. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 47(12): 1250–1258.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/pjss.2019.52.1.153
Data publikacji: 2019-06-24 08:51:09
Data złożenia artykułu: 2019-01-18 12:15:09


Total abstract view - 1000
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 656



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Kacper Rygielski, Wojciech Kucaj, Krystyna Cybulska

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.