Patent Protection in the TRIPS Agreement and the Right to Health: Can They Be Reconciled?

Paulina Krukowska-Siembida

Abstract


The monopoly enjoyed by pharmaceutical manufacturers, resulting from the protection of intellectual property, directly affects the price of medicinal products and thus their availability, especially in developing and least-developed countries. The aim of the article was to examine the provisions of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights adopted under the World Trade Organization, an attempt to answer the question of whether it is possible to reconcile the protection of intellectual property with the human right to health.


Keywords


World Trade Organization; right to health; intellectual property protection; TRIPS Agreement; patent protection

References


Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (as amended on 23 January 2017), www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/31bis_trips_01_e.htm [access: 12.10.2019].

Barcik J., Międzynarodowe prawo zdrowia publicznego, Warszawa 2013.

Barczewski M., Prawa własności intelektualnej w Światowej Organizacji Handlu a dostęp do produktów leczniczych, Warszawa 2013.

Canada – patent protection of pharmaceutical products. Complaint by the European Communities and their Member States. Report of the Panel, WTO, Geneva 17.03.2000, WT/DS114/R.

Constitution of the World Health Organization, adopted in 1946, www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf [access: 10.11.2019].

Cullet P., Patents Bill, TRIPS and right to health, “Economic and Political Weekly” 2001, October 27.

Feng-Wu C., Raising the right to health concerns within the framework of international intellectual property law, “Asian Journal of WTO & International Health Law and Policy” 2010, Vol. 5.

Gamharter K., Access to Affordable Medicines: Developing Responses under the TRIPS Agreement and EC Law, Berlin–Heidelberg 2004.

Grącik-Zajączkowska M., Unia Europejska i Stany Zjednoczone w Światowej Organizacji Handlu, Warszawa 2010.

Hestermeyer H., Human Rights and the WTO. The Case of Patents and Access to Medicines, Oxford 2007.

Ho C.M., Access to Medicine on the Global Economy: International Agreements on Patents and Related Rights, Oxford 2011.

How to accept the Protocol Amending the TRIPS Agreement. Background information for Members on procedures, www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/accept_e.htm [access: 12.10.2019].

Hristova M.V., Are Intellectual Property Rights Human Rights? Patent Protection and the Right to Health, “Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society” 2011, Vol. 93(3).

Human Rights and Intellectual Property Issues: Statement by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 26 November 2001, ONZ E/C.12/2001/15.

Implementation of paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health, Decision of the General Council of 30 August 2003, General Council, WT/L/540 and Corr. 1, www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/implem_para6_e.htm [access: 23.10.2019].

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966 entry into force 3 January 1976, in accordance with Article 27, www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/cescr.aspx [access: 10.11.2019].

Joseph S., Blame it on the WTO? A Human Rights Critique, Oxford 2011.

Ranjan P., Understanding the Conflicts between the TRIPS Agreement and the Humam Right to Health, “Journal of World Investment & Trade” 2008, Vol. 9(6), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/221190008X00278.

Report of High Commissioner “The impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights on Human Rights”, E/CN.4/Sub.2/2001/12.

Sztoldman A., Korzystanie z chronionego wynalazku w celu rejestracji produktu leczniczego, Warszawa 2018.

Vall M. du, [in:] System Prawa Prywatnego, t. 14A: Prawo własności przemysłowej, red. R. Skubisz, Warszawa 2012.

World Development Report 2000/2001, World Bank, Washington.

Wróbel A., Handel lekami w regulacjach Światowej Organizacji Handlu, [in:] Ochrona zdrowia w stosunkach międzynarodowych, red. W. Lizak, A.M. Solarz, Warszawa 2013.

WTO Agreements & Public Health. A joint study by the WHO and the WTO Secretariat, WHO, WTO, 2002.

WTO, Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, WT/MIN(01)/DEC/2.

Ziemblicki B., Ochrona praw człowieka w systemie Światowej Organizacji Handlu, Toruń 2013.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2019.28.4.89-100
Data publikacji: 2019-12-30 00:00:00
Data złożenia artykułu: 2019-11-18 13:22:59


Statistics

Total abstract view - 415
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 0 PDF (Język Polski) - 0

Indicators



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Paulina Krukowska-Siembida

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.