The Use of Algorithms in Criminal Procedure (Selected Issues)

Adam Taracha

Abstract


The article analyzes attempts to apply mathematical methods in criminal cases since the times of J. Bentham and indicates the use of algorithms in the activities of law enforcement agencies in the detection process when it comes to the identification of people (based on the image of the face) and vehicles (based on the identification of license plates). The use of algorithms in the practice of criminal justice in the US was also discussed. In the opinion of the author, their use in a criminal trial (in the assessment of evidence and shaping the judgement) will still be only partial and sporadic for some time to come. There is no doubt, however, that their use will cause a lot of controversy. The main reason is the contradiction between the constantly increasing possibilities of collecting and using data about a person (thanks to, among others, algorithms) by law enforcement and judicial authorities and the protection of human rights and freedoms.


Keywords


algorithms; personal data; image of the face; identification; assessment of evidence

References


LITERATURE

Bentham J., Traktat o dowodach sądowych w opracowaniu E. Dumonta, Gniezno [no year of release].

Czerwone światło rozpozna twarz. Będzie mandat na przejściu!, 2017, www.fakt.pl/pieniadze/prawo/system-rozpoznawania-twarzy-dostarczy-mandat/bgqwejf [access: 22.07.2019].

Fry H., Hello world. Jak być człowiekiem w epoce maszyn, Kraków 2019.

Konieczny J., Pojęcia prawdopodobieństwa ze stanowiska procesu karnego i kryminalistyki, Katowice 1987.

Lifesaver – polscy policjanci na drogach Walii (Wielka Brytania), 2010, www.policja.pl/pol/aktualnosci/59664,LIFESAVER-polscy-policjanci-na-drogach-Walii-Wielka-Brytania.html [access: 12.02.2020].

Michalak A., Wielka Brytania: Kontrowersje wokół systemu rozpoznawania twarzy, „Rzeczpospolita”, 17.08.2017.

Niemcy. Kamera zidentyfikuje podejrzanych, 2017, www.niezalezna.pl/200036-niemcy-kamera-zidentyfikuje-podejrzanych [access: 14.03.2019].

O’Hara Ch.E., Osterburg J.W., An Introduction to Criminalistics: The Application of the Physical Sciences to the Detection of Crime, New York 1949.

Thorwald J., Stulecie detektywów, Kraków 2009.

LEGAL ACTS

Act of 29 August 1997 on Data Protection (Journal of Laws 1997, no. 133, item 833).

Act of 10 May 2018 on Personal Data Protection (Journal of Laws 2019, item 1781).

Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) (OJ EU L 119/1, 4.05.2016).

CASE LAW

Judgement of the Voivodeship Administrative Court in Warsaw of 9 April 2013, SA/211/13.

Loomis v. Wisconsin, 881 N.W. 2d 749 (Wis. 2016).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2020.29.5.301-309
Data publikacji: 2020-12-31 13:58:12
Data złożenia artykułu: 2020-02-22 14:01:45


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