Legal and Political Aspects of the Council of National Defense Functioning in 1920

Damian Szczepański

Abstract


The Council of National Defence, established on 1 July 1920, was to be a temporary governmental body having full legislative and executive power in all matters relating to the conduct and ending of the war, and also with the conclusion of peace with Bolshevik Russia. As regards the above matters, the Council of National Defence was to issue orders and regulations, which were immediately enforceable. Despite acquiring very broad powers, both legislative and executive, none of its regulations went beyond its competence scope. The Council of National Defence regulations had to be approved by the Legislative Sejm in order to be valid. During the three months’ period of its functioning, the Council of National Defense issued over 90 different legal acts aiming at strengthening of defense of the Polish State that was threatened with a loss of its independence. The Council of National Defense played a major role in holding back the Bolshevik invasion of Poland. It contributed to formation of a large army, and made the nation regain its faith in successful end of the military conflict with Soviet Russia.


Keywords


the Bolshevik invasion of Poland; Council of National Defense; legislative and executive power; Legislative Sejm; temporary governmental body; regulations

References


ARCHIVES

Archives of Modern Records in Warsaw (AMR): Military Institutions; Civilian Chancellery of the Chief of State; Presidium of the Council of Ministers; Presidium of the Council of Ministers – Meeting protocoles; Presidium of the Council of Ministers – Fact files; Council of National Defense

Central Military Archives (CMA): Office of the Minister of Military Affairs.

LITERATURE

Dokumenty i materiały do historii stosunków polsko-radzieckich, t. 3: Kwiecień 1920 – marzec 1921, comp. W. Gostyńska, I. Jażborowska, A. Leinwand, Warszawa 1964.

Drozdowski M.M., Józef Piłsudski. Naczelnik Państwa Polskiego 14 XI 1918 – 14 XII 1922, Warszawa 2008.

Garlicki A., Józef Piłsudski 1867–1935, Warszawa 1989.

Głąbiński S., Wspomnienia polityczne, part 1, Pelpin 1939.

Goclon J., „Rząd Obrony Narodowej” Wincentego Witosa 24 VII 1920 – 13 IX 1921. Pozycja prawno-ustrojowa i dokonania w polityce wewnętrznej, [without place and year of release].

Goclon J., W obronie Europy. Wojna z bolszewicką Rosją w 1920 roku, Łódź 2009.

Jędrzejewicz W., Cisek J., Kalendarium życia Józefa Piłsudskiego 1867–1935, vol. 2: 1916–1920, Kraków–Łomianki 2006.

Komarnicki W., Polskie prawo polityczne (geneza i system), Warszawa 1922.

Korwin-Milewski H., Siedemdziesiąt lat wspomnień (1855–1925), Poznań 1930.

Kozerska E., Dziewulska K., The State National Council and the Polish Committee of National Liberation in a State Governed by the Rule of Law: Positions of Legal Scholarly Opinion, “Studia Iuridica Lublinensia” 2021, vol. 30(1), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2021.30.1.121-144.

Kraczkowski R., Dekretowanie ustaw w Polsce w latach 1918–1926, Warszawa 1994.

Leinwand A., Molenda J., Protokoły Rady Obrony Państwa, [in:] Z dziejów stosunków polsko-radzieckich. Studia i materiały, vol. 1, Warszawa 1965.

Madajczyk P., Niemcy wobec wojny polsko-radzieckiej w 1920 r., [in:] Wojna polsko-sowiecka 1920 roku. Przebieg walk i tło międzynarodowe, ed. A. Koryn, Warszawa 1991.

Marszałek P.K., Geneza i działalność Trybunału Obrony Państwa z 1920 r., “Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis” 1992, no. 1193.

Marszałek P.K., Rada Obrony Państwa z 1920 roku. Studium prawnohistoryczne, Wrocław 1995.

Mazanek K., Sejm Ustawodawczy wobec zagadnień wojskowych, “Bellona, Miesięcznik Wojskowy” 1923, vol. 9(1–3).

Obrona Państwa w 1920 roku. Księga sprawozdawczo-pamiątkowa Generalnego Inspektora Armii Ochotniczej i Obywatelskich Komitetów Obrony Państwa, ed. W. Ścibor-Rylski, Warszawa 1923.

Petter W., Niemcy i Reichswehra w wojnie polsko-sowieckiej (1919–1920), [in:] Rok 1920 z perspektywy osiemdziesięciolecia, ed. A. Ajnenkiel, Warszawa 2001.

Podolska-Meducka A., Od wojny do wojny. System świadczeń wojennych w Polsce w latach 1918–1921, Warszawa 2011.

Rataj M., Pamiętniki 1918–1927, Warszawa 1963.

Rycharski A., Utworzenie Rady Obrony Państwa w 1920 roku, [in:] Wybrane zagadnienia ustrojowe Polski nowożytnej, ed. A. Nowakowski, Wadowice 2000.

Sąsiedzi wobec wojny 1920 roku, comp. J. Cisek, Londyn 1990.

Wapiński R., Endecja na Pomorzu 1920–1939, Gdańsk 1966.

Wapiński R., Roman Dmowski, Lublin 1988.

Wapiński R., Świadomość polityczna w Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej, Łódź 1989.

Witos W., Moje wspomnienia, part 2, comp. and footnotes E. Karczewski, J.R. Szaflik, Warszawa 1990.

Zaremba P, Historia dwudziestolecia (1918–1939), vol. 1, Paryż 1981.

LEGAL ACTS

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 14 July 1920 on the conscription of the age group of 1894, 1893, 1892, 1891 and 1890 (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 58, item 363).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 14 July 1920 on the appointment of lawyers to active military service (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 62, item 406).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 14 July 1920 on the establishment of a badge of honor for (equal) and rank-and-file officers for wounds and injuries (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 83, item 555).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 15 July 1920 on issuing direct requisition orders by military authorities (supplement to the Act of 28 October 1919) (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 62, item 407).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 15 July 1920 on the amendment of Article 185 of the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 10 May 1920 on the implementation in the territory of the Republic of Poland of the Act of Military Criminal Procedure for the Common Armed Forces of 5 July 1912 (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 60, item 372).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense on 19 July 1920 on the announcement of news regarding the army and state defense during the war (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 63, item 416).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 19 July 1920 on the conscription of horses (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 63, item 415).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 19 July 1920 on the establishment of the Western Civic Guard in the area of the former Prussian district (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 62, item 408).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 19 July 1920 on the recruitment of foreigners to the Volunteer Army (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 63, item 414).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 20 July 1920 on military allowances for the families of persons serving in the Polish Army from conscription and voluntary service (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 63, item 418).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 20 July 1920 on temporary allowances for volunteer families (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 63, item 417).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 20 July 1920 on attracting people to personal and material benefits in the event of an evacuation (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 64, item 425).

Regulation of the State Defense Council of 20 July 1920 on summary courts in the former Austrian partition (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 61, item 393).

Regulation of the State Defense Council of 20 July 1920 on summary courts in the former Russian partition (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 61, item 392).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 30 July 1920 on military summary justice (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 71, item 479).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 30 July 1920 on the amendment of Article 53 (1) of the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 10 May 1920 on the implementation of the military penal code (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 71, item 478).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 6 August 1920 on the authorization of the Minister of Provision to issue provisions related to the conduct of war (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 73, item 500).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 6 August 1920 on the establishment of a state of siege (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 69, item 460).

Regulation of the State Defense Council of 6 August 1920 on amendments to the Act of 27 May 1919 on the temporary provision of the widows and orphans of the servicemen of the Polish army (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 75, item 510).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 11 August 1920 on employers’ obligations towards workers and employees performing active volunteer service in the Polish army and their families (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 81, item 539).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 11 August 1920 on the conscription of the age group of 1889, 1888, 1887, 1886, 1885 (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 75, item 514).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 11 August 1920 on the establishment of the Cross of Valor (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 87, item 572).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 18 August 1920 on supplementing the provision of Articles 20 and 21 of the Act of 25 July 1919 on personal war benefits (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 81, item 541).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 18 August 1920 on the restriction of penalties for crimes committed by military personnel, resulting from the service relationship (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 81, item 543).

Regulation of the Council of National Defense of 25 August 1920 on a one-time tribute for the needs of the army (Journal of Laws 1920, no. 86, item 570).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2021.30.4.533-555
Data publikacji: 2021-10-13 00:46:00
Data złożenia artykułu: 2020-03-04 16:33:05


Statistics

Total abstract view - 43
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 0 PDF (Język Polski) - 0

Indicators



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Damian Szczepański

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.