Axiology of Administrative Discretion (gyōsei sairyō) as Well as Administrative Guidance (gyōsei shidō) in Japan from the Perspective of Judicial Control

Hiroshi Kaneko

Abstract


In Japan, the Court often examines the technical aspects of administrative discretion if there was a proper decision-making process. Such control could rely too much upon each judges’ viewpoint, which elements in the whole process of administrative discretion have critical gravity to evaluate (kōryo kachi). The pre-war legal scholars suggested the best way to increase judicial protection on the citizens’ rights endangered by administrative discretion. The need to establish robust legal theory based on it the Court guarantees the balance between smooth enactment of administrative measures and maintenance of social justice is still enormous. Administrative guidance was, for a long time, out of the scope of judicial control. This institution is Japan’s original so that its implication well exceeds the standard understanding of mere instruction in other legal cultures. The Japanese Court acknowledges the existence of “forced consent” behind it more frequently in recent years.


Keywords


axiology; administrative discretion; administrative guidance; administrative law; administrative litigation; Japanese law; German law; Tatsukichi Minobe; Minamata disease; lawsuits against nuclear power plant; the Oil Cartel Case; ripeness doctrine

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References


LITERATURE

Epidemiology, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/epidemiology [access: 29.03.2020].

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Hashimoto H., Sakurai K., Gyōsei hō, Tokyo 2011.

Hino T., Toshi keikaku to sairyō shinsa, [in:] Gyōsei hanrei hyakusen, eds. K. Uga, N. Kōketsu, T. Yamamoto, Vol. 1, Tokyo 2017.

Itō H., Iken rippō shinsa to jiko-yokusei gata no Saikō Saibansho, [in:] Soshō seido to shihō kyūsai, ed. H. Wada, Tokyo 1989.

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LEGAL ACTS

Act of 22 October 1875 – Law on Establishing Single Administrative Court (Gesetz betreffend die Einrichtung eines Verwaltungsgerichtshofes).

Act of 16 May 1962 – Law on Administrative Litigation (gyōsei jiken soshō hō, Law No. 139).

Act of 12 November 1993 – Law on Administrative Procedure (gyōsei tetsuzuki hō, Law No. 88).

Act of 9 June 2004 – Law on Amending the Law on Administrative Litigation (Law No. 84).

CASE LAW

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2020.29.3.135-148
Data publikacji: 2020-06-30 09:44:39
Data złożenia artykułu: 2020-04-30 15:40:20


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