Pet Welfare in Municipal Adaptation Plans: Case of Poland

Anna Haładyj, Katarzyna Kułak-Krzysiak


The aim of the article was to explore pet welfare in Municipal Adaptation Plans (MAPs), based on a literature review and case studies of 40 MAPs accepted in Poland as part of the “Let’s Feel the Climate” project, supported by the Polish Ministry of Environment in 2017–2019. The study summarizes the concept of climate change and the importance of adaptation measures with particular emphasis on urban heat islands and heat stress, acknowledged by climate change literature, and outlines pet welfare in the context of thermal comfort and threats caused by heat stress. Because the authors subsequently presented an empirical study of the 40 accepted MAPs, they also discussed the role and legal nature of MAPs. The main hypothesis of this survey of Polish MAPs was that pet welfare in the context of their thermal comfort is an example of the adaptive measures clearly stipulated in Polish MAPs, which was examined after presenting the MAPs’ findings. The starting point was the assumption that the welfare of pets should also be assessed from the perspective of their thermal comfort – a new element of broadly understood animal welfare. This is due to the fact that pets are exposed to the risk of heat stress resulting from urban heat islands and, just like people, have to endure the inconvenience of extreme weather phenomena, which is impossible without the support of amenities such as drinkers or water shelters and the development of green and blue infrastructure.


pet welfare; Municipal Adaptation Plan; thermal comfort; adaptation to climate change; adaptation measures; heat stress



Abunnasr Y., Hamin E.M., Brabec E., Windows of opportunity: Addressing climate uncertainty through adaptation plan implementation, “Journal of Environmental Planning and Management” 2013, vol. 58(1), DOI:

Alexandra J., The city as nature and the nature of the city – climate adaptation using living infrastructure: governance and integration challenges, “Australasian Journal of Water Resources” 2017, vol. 21(2), DOI:

Araos M., Berrang-Ford L., Ford J.D., Austin S.E., Biesbroek R., Lesnikowski A., Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: A systematic global assessment, “Environmental Science & Policy” 2016, vol. 66, DOI:

Bunyavanich S., Phil M., Landrigan Ch.P., McMichael A.J., Epstein P.R., The Impact of Climate Change on Child Health, “Ambulatory Pediatrics” 2003 vol. 3(1), DOI:<0044:TIOCCO>2.0.CO;2.

Carnes A.B., Staats D., Willcox B.J., Impact of Climate Change on Elder Health, “Journals of Gerontology: Biological Sciences” 2014, vol. 69(9), DOI:

Carter S.B., Why planning limits its concern: A case study of planning for dogs in Melbourne, Australia, “Australian Planner” 2016, vol. 53(3), DOI:

Chajbowicz A., Administracja wobec zmian klimatu (prolegomena), “Przegląd Prawa i Administracji” 2020, no. 1, DOI:

Chrobak K., Kryczka P., The Comparison of Urban Policy Documents in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change – Case Study of Wrocław, “Space & FORM” 2020, no. 2.

Ciechanowicz-McLean J., Prawo ochrony klimatu, Gdańsk 2016.

Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds. T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, P.M. Midgley, Cambridge – New York 2013.

Degórska B., Wrażliwość i adaptacja dużych miast do zmian klimatu w kontekście wzrostu temperatury powietrza, “Biuletyn KPZK” 2014, vol. 254.

Degórska B., Degórski M., Influence of Climate Change on Environmental Hazards and Human Well-Being in the Urban Areas – Warsaw Case Study Versus General Problems, [in:] Climate Change, Extreme Events and Disaster Risk Reduction: Towards Sustainable Development Goals, eds. S. Mal, R.B. Singh, C. Huggel, New York 2018.

Dufour B., Moutou F., Hattenberger M., Rodhain F., Global change: Impact, management, risk approach and health measures – the case of Europe, “Revue Scientifique et Technique – Office International des Epizooties” 2008, vol. 27(2), DOI:

Engster D., Care Ethics and Animal Welfare, “Journal of Social Philosophy” 2006, vol. 37(4), DOI:

Fey S.B., Siepielski A.M., Nusslé S., Cervantes-Yoshida K., Hwan J.L., Huber E.R., Fey M.J., Catenazzi A., Carlson S.M., Recent shifts in the occurrence, cause, and magnitude of animal mass mortality events, “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences” 2015, vol. 112(4), DOI:

Gajewski R., Zastosowanie modelu „terytorium-miejsce-skala-sieci powiązań” w analizie miejskich planów adaptacji do zmian klimatu, [in:] Współczesne problemy i kierunki badawcze w geografii, eds. Ł. Fiedeń, K. Anielska, A. Świgost-Kapocsi, vol. 8, Kraków 2020.

Gendźwiłł A., Zdecentralizowana adaptacja? Opinie władz lokalnych o zmianach klimatu i lokalnej polityce adaptacji do zmian klimatycznych, “Studia Regionalne i Lokalne” 2017, vol. 68(2), DOI:

Grochowska I., Wprowadzenie, [in:] Zmiany klimatu a społeczeństwo, eds. L. Karski, I. Grochowska, Warszawa 2010.

Haładyj A., Trzewik J., Lokalizacja pni pszczelich na tle regulacji prawa administracyjnego i prawa cywilnego, “Studia Prawnoustrojowe” 2017, vol. 37.

Hoegh-Guldberg O., Jacob D., Taylor M., Bindi M., Brown S., Camilloni I., Diedhiou A., Djalante R., Ebi K.L., Engelbrecht F., Guiot J., Hijioka Y., Mehrotra S., Payne A., Seneviratne S.I., Thomas A., Warren R., Zhou G., Impacts of 1.5ºC Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems, [in:] Global Warming of 1.5°C: An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C Above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable Development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty, eds. V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, T. Waterfield, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2018.

Kalbarczyk E., Kalbarczyk R., Typology of Climate Change Adaptation Measures in Polish Cities up to 2030, “Land” 2020, vol. 9(10), DOI:

Karski L., Istota prawa zmian klimatu – cel i klasyfikacja, [in:] Zmiany klimatu a społeczeństwo, eds. L. Karski, I. Grochowska, Warszawa 2010.

Kruk E., Polish and Estonian Regulations on Homeless (Stray) Animals, “Studia Iuridica Lublinensia” 2021, vol. 30(1), DOI:

Krupa W., Topczewska J., Karpiński M., Do Current Legal Provisions Guarantee a High Level of Welfare of Domestic Animals?, [in:] Legal Protection of Animals, eds. E. Kruk, G. Lubeńczuk, H. Spasowska-Czarny, Lublin 2020.

Lacetera N., Impact of climate change on animal health and welfare, “Animal Frontiers” 2019, vol. 9(1), DOI:

Lee Y., Fadhil M., Mohanadoss P., Noor Z.Z., Iwao K., Chelliapan S., Overview of urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon towards human thermal comfort, “Environmental Engineering and Management Journal” 2014, vol. 16(9), DOI:

Lubeńczuk G., Administrative Restrictions with Respect to Keeping Pet Animals in the Light of Polish Law and the Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals, [in:] Legal Protection of Animals, eds. E. Kruk, G. Lubeńczuk, H. Spasowska-Czarny, Lublin 2020.

McMichael A.J., Woodruff R.E., Hales S., Climate change and human health: Present and future risks, “Lancet” 2006, vol. 367(9513), DOI:

Measham T.G., Preston B.L., Smith T.F., Brooke C., Gorddard R., Withycombe G., Morrison C., Adapting to climate change through local municipal planning: Barriers and challenges, “Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change” 2011, vol. 16(8), DOI:

Moraci F., Errigo M.F., Fazi C., Campisi T., Castelli F., Cities under Pressure: Strategies and Tools to Face Climate Change and Pandemic, “Sustainability” 2020, vol. 12(18), DOI:

Mukheibir P., Ziervogel G., Developing a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP) for climate change: The city of Cape Town, “Environment and Urbanization” 2007, vol. 19(1), DOI:

OECD, Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation: Policy Guidance, Paris 2009.

Patz J.A., Campbell-Lendrum D., Holloway T., Foley J.A., Impact of regional climate change on human health, “Nature” 2005, vol. 438, DOI:

Pietrzykowski T., Moralność publiczna a konstytucyjne podstawy ochrony zwierząt, “Studia Prawnicze” 2019, no. 1, DOI:

Reyes-García V., Fernández-Llamazares A., Guèze M., Garcés A., Mallo M., Vila-Gómez M., Vilaseca M., Local indicators of climate change: The potential contribution of local knowledge to climate research, “Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Climate Change” 2016, vol. 7(1), DOI:

Sainsbury D.W.B., Pig Housing and Welfare, “Pig News and Information” 1984, no. 4.

Sushyk O., Rosokhata D., Animals with Regard to Climate Changes – International and European Law Aspects, “Przegląd Prawa Administracyjnego” 2018, no. 1, DOI:

Szymańska M.E., Livestock Welfare – Legal Aspects, [in:] Legal Protection of Animals, eds. E. Kruk, G. Lubeńczuk, H. Spasowska-Czarny, Lublin 2020.

Takebayashi H., Moriyama M., Background and Purpose, [in:] Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands, eds. H. Takebayashi, M. Moriyama, Elsevier 2020.

Urban adaptation in Europe: How cities and towns respond to climate change, EEA Report 2020, no. 12.


th Annual BETTER CITIES FOR PETS™ Adoption Weekend Goes Virtual, 2020, [access: 11.07.2021].

ADAPTCITY, [access: 10.07.2021].

European Commission, Guidance on Integrating Climate Change and Biodiversity into Environmental Impact Assessment, 2013, [access: 11.06.2021].

IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives. Report 2016, [access: 10.07.2021].

Ministerstwo Środowiska, Podręcznik adaptacji dla miast. Wytyczne do przygotowania Miejskiego Planu Adaptacji do zmian klimatu, 2019, [access: 10.08.2021].

The Climate Reality Project, Climate change and your pet: how to keep your best friend safe and healthy in a warming world, Washington 2019, [access: 10.06.2021].


Act of 21 August 1997 on the protection of animals (consolidated text, Journal of Laws 2020, item 638).

Council Decision (EU) 2016/1841 of 5 October 2016 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Union, of the Paris Agreement adopted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (OJ L 282, 19.10.2016, pp. 1–3).

European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals, signed in Strasbourg on 13 November 1987.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992 (Journal of Laws 1996, no. 53, items 238 and 239).


Brambell Cometee Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire into the Welfare of Animals kept under Intensive Livestock Husbandry, Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Scotland and the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food by Command of Her Majesty, December 1965.

Commission of the European Communities, White paper – Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action Brussels, 1.04.2009, COM(2009) 147 final.

Data publikacji: 2021-09-16 22:46:43
Data złożenia artykułu: 2021-02-11 17:48:12


Total abstract view - 850
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 0 PDF (Język Polski) - 0



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Haładyj, Katarzyna Kułak-Krzysiak

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.