Chemisation of Agriculture in Selected Legal Acts

Monika Żuchowska-Grzywacz

Abstract


The article attempts to present an analysis of the status of the concept of chemisation in selected legal acts at the international, EU and national level, and to outline the legal problems related to chemisation in agriculture. The concept of agricultural chemisation belongs to a conceptual framework of other than law branches of empirical sciences, primarily chemistry, natural sciences and agrotechnics. There is no legal definition and it is dispersed in various legal acts, significantly affecting such areas as environmental protection, food safety, food security, protection of the interests of consumers and agricultural entrepreneurs. Due to the specifics of the study, a dogmatic method was used, which analyzed the research material consisting of selected, key provisions of international and EU law and acts of national law. In order to extend the issues and emphasize the issues that are the subject of the study, the method of content analysis and analysis of documents was used, thanks to which the topicality of the discussed issue and its significant importance from the social point of view were shown. The conducted analysis was aimed at showing and emphasizing the multifaceted and complex nature of the issue.


Keywords


chemisation of agriculture; environmental protection; food safety; food security; consumer; agricultural entrepreneur

References


LITERATURE

Dokumenty końcowe Konferencji Narodów Zjednoczonych „Środowisko i Rozwój”, Szczyt Ziemi, Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 czerwca 1992 r., Warszawa 1993.

Król M.A., Legal Framework of Environmental Law for Agricultural Production in Poland, “Polityki Europejskie, Finanse i Marketing” 2015, vol. 13(63).

Król M.A., Legal Instruments to Protect the Environment from the Effects of Excessive Chemistry in Agriculture on the Example of Plant Protection Products Regulation, “Studia Iuridica Lublinensia” 2020, vol. 29(2), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2020.29.2.49-68.

Kwiatkowski C.A., Harasim E., Produkcja rolnicza a bezpieczna żywność. Wybrane aspekty, Radom 2019.

Matyjaszczyk E., Ekonomiczne aspekty integrowanej ochrony roślin, [in:] Metody ochrony w integrowanej ochronie roślin, ed. S. Pruszyński, Poznań 2016.

Nasza wspólna przyszłość. Raport Światowej Komisji do spraw Środowiska Rozwoju, Warszawa 1991.

Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 1972, doc. A/Conf. 48/14 rev. 1.

Straszak-Chandoha S., Merta-Straszak A., Chemizacja rolnictwa a ochrona zasobów naturalnych w okresie PRL ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Dolnego Śląska, [in:] Od systemu żarowego do ekorozwoju. Ochrona i wykorzystanie zasobów środowiska naturalnego na ziemiach polskich – aspekt historyczny, eds. T. Głowiński, M. Zawadka, Wrocław 2016.

Online sources

Bańkowska K., Przyroda jako dobro produkcyjne, dobro publiczne i wartość społeczna, www.irwirpan.waw.pl/dir_upload/site/files/Monografia/27_Bankowska.pdf [access: 28.08.2021].

Chemizacja, https://sjp.pwn.pl/sjp/chemizacja;2447960.html [access: 23.09.2020].

United Nations Conference on Environment & Development, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992, Agenda 21, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf [access: 7.12.2020].

Legal acts

Act of 16 February 1961 on the protection of cultivated plants against diseases, pests and weeds (Journal of Laws 1961, no. 10, items 54, 55).

Act of 13 June 1967 on the obligation to use mineral fertilisers on farms (Journal of Laws 1967, no. 23, item 109).

Act of 31 January 1980 on the protection and shaping of the environment (Journal of Laws 1994, no. 49, item 196, as amended).

Act of 3 February 1995 on the protection of agricultural and forest land (Journal of Laws 2017, item 1161, as amended).

Act of 12 July 1995 on the protection of arable crops (Journal of Laws 2002, no. 171, item 2020).

Act of 26 July 2000 on fertilisers and fertilisation (Journal of Laws 2000, no. 89).

Act of 16 March 2001 on organic farming (Journal of Laws 2001, no. 38, item 2220).

Act of 27 April 2001 – Environmental Protection Law (Journal of Laws 2001, no. 62, item 627).

Act of 18 December 2003 on the protection of plants (Journal of Laws 2004, no. 11, item 94).

Act of 25 August 2006 on food safety and nutrition (Journal of Laws 2006, no. 171, item 1225).

Act of 10 July 2007 on fertilisers and fertilisation (Journal of Laws 2020, items 796, 1069).

Act of 25 June 2009 on organic agriculture (Journal of Laws 2009, no. 116, item 975).

Act of 8 March 2013 on plant protection products (Journal of Laws 2020, item 425).

Act of 13 June 2013 on the management of packaging and packaging waste (Journal of Laws 2013, item 888).

Act of 20 July 2017 – Water Law (Journal of Laws 2017, item 1566).

Announcement of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 11 July 2018 on the national action plan to reduce the risk associated with the use of plant protection products for 2018–2022 (Polish Monitor 2018, item 723).

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) no. 485/2013 of 24 May 2013 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) no. 540/2011, as regards the conditions of approval of the active substances clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, and prohibiting the use and sale of seeds treated with plant protection products containing those active substances (OJ L 139/12, 25.05.2013).

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/783 of 29 May 2018 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) no. 540/2011 as regards the conditions of approval of the active substance imidacloprid (OJ L 132/31, 30.05.2018).

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions EU – Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 “Bringing nature back into our lives”, COM/2020/380 final.

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – A Farm to Fork Strategy for a fair, healthy and environmentally-friendly food system, COM/2020/381 final.

Convention on Biological Diversity, drawn up in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 (Journal of Laws 2002, no. 184, item 1532).

Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, drawn up in Rotterdam on 10 September 1998 (Journal of Laws 2008, no. 158, item 990, 29.08.2008).

Council Directive 76/895/EEC of 23 November 1976 relating to the fixing of maximum levels for pesticide residues in and on fruit and vegetables (OJ L 340, 9.12.1976, pp. 26–31).

Council Directive 90/642/EEC of 27 November 1990 on the fixing of maximum levels for pesticide residues in and on certain products of plant origin, including fruit and vegetables (OJ L 350, 14.12.1990, pp. 71–79).

Council Directive 91/414/EEC of 15 July 1991 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market (OJ L 230, 19.08.1991, pp. 1–32).

Council Regulation (EEC) no. 2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs (OJ L 198/1, 22.07.1991).

Council Regulation (EC) no. 1804/1999 of 19 July 1999 supplementing Regulation (EEC) no. 2092/91 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs to include livestock production (OJ L 222/1, 24.08.1999).

Decree of the Polish Committee of National Liberation of 6 September 1944 on the land reform (consolidated text, Journal of Laws 1945, no. 3, item 13).

Decree of the Polish Committee of National Liberation of 30 March 1945 on compulsory management of agricultural land (Journal of Laws 1945, no. 11, item 59).

Directive 79/117/EEC of 21 December 1978 prohibiting the placing on the market of products containing certain active substances (OJ L 33, 8.02.1979).

Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides (OJ L 309/71, 24.11.2009).

Regulation (EC) no. 2003/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 relating to fertilisers (OJ L 304/1, 21.11.2003).

Regulation (EC) no. 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 February 2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC (OJ L 70/1, 16.03.2005).

Regulation (EC) no. 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC (OJ L 309/1, 24.11.2009).

Regulation (EC) no. 1185/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 concerning statistics on pesticides (OJ L 324/1, 10.12.2009).

Regulation (EU) 2019/1009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 laying down rules on the making available on the market of EU fertilising products and amending Regulations (EC) no. 1069/2009 and (EC) no. 1107/2009 and repealing Regulation (EC) no. 2003/2003 (OJ L 170/1, 25.06.2019).

Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Food Economy of 12 January 1998 on occupational health and safety when operating tractors, machines, tools and technical devices used in agriculture (Journal of Laws 1998, no. 12, item 51).

Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 24 June 2002 on occupational health and safety in the use and storage of plant protection products as well as mineral and organic-mineral fertilisers (Journal of Laws 2002, no. 99, item 896).

Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 18 June 2008 on the implementation of certain provisions of the Act on fertilisers and fertilisation (Journal of Laws 2008, no. 119, item 765).

Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 16 April 2008 on the detailed method of using fertilisers and conducting training in the field of their use (Journal of Laws 2008, no. 80, item 479).

Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 18 April 2013 on the requirements of integrated pest management (Journal of Laws 2013, item 505).

Regulation of the Minister of Economy of 8 September 2010 on the method of packing mineral fertilisers, placing information on fertiliser ingredients on these packages, methods of testing mineral fertilisers and types of fertiliser lime (Journal of Laws 2010, no. 183, item 1229).

Resolution no. 347 of the Council of Ministers of 22 October 1963 on agrominimum (Polish Monitor 1963, no. 85, item 408).

Resolution no. 64/70 of 18 May 1970 on the organization of research in the field of toxicology and safe use of pesticides and the control of their residues in food and human environment.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2021.30.4.621-636
Data publikacji: 2021-10-13 00:46:08
Data złożenia artykułu: 2021-03-17 22:25:10


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