„Relaxed” semi-presidentialism: the constitutional position of the President in Finland – from semi-presidentialism towards modified parliamentarism

Marian Grzybowski


According to the form of government of July 17, 1919, the constitutional system in Finland was marked by strenghened position of the President. He was considered both the head of the state and the real leader of the executive power. President served as a representative of the Republic, the real constructor of its foreign policy as well as the main cabinet-maker. The President’s competences became enhanced by the strong personalities holding the office (like Juho Paasikivi and Urho Kekkonen). After resignation of Kekkonen from the office the position of the President’s office holder was gradually lowered, although the change of the election procedure ( the direct election has replaced electoral colegium composed of 301 persons) offered some – unexplored – space for consolidation of his political position. The new Constitution of Finland of June 11, 1999 (in force since the year 2000) moved the constitutional system of the country towards the modernized parliamentarism. The President preserved his influence in the field of foreign policy but his internal competences were narrowed in favour of both the Parliament (Eduskunta) and the Cabinet, now strictly dependent on parliamentary majority.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2014.22.0.63
Data publikacji: 2015-04-18 11:34:24
Data złożenia artykułu: 2015-04-14 19:05:49


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