Legal Liability for the Crime of Rape in the Muslim Countries

Robert Sosik

Abstract


The crime of rape is a frequent subject matter for the doctrine. This article aims at presenting the complex analysis of current penal regulations in the law of Islam, basing on selected countries, such as Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan and Turkey. The legal situation of women in the culture of Muslim countries, as the most sufficient factor affecting the number of sexual crimes in those countries, is set as the foundation for the analysis in this paper.


Keywords


penal law; rape; sexual crimes; rape in the Middle East; rape in Islam

Full Text:

PDF (Język Polski)

References


Afshar H., Women, State and Ideology, London 1987.

Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh S.A., The Draft of the Constitution and Islamic Human Rights, Paris 2008.

Al-Qaradawy Y., Women in Islam, 2008.

Anwarullah, Principles of Evidence in Islam, Kuala Lumpur 1999.

Badawi J.A., Poligamia in Legea islamici, 2000.

British woman arrested in Dubai after reporting rape, www.theguardian.com/world/2010/jan/08/british-woman-arrested-dubai [dostęp: 20.03.2017].

Dubai rape case Norwegian woman ‘free to go’, www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-23404042 [dostęp: 20.03.2017].

Eurostat, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/crime/database [dostęp: 10.01.2017].

Fayed H., When rape is not rape: The inadequacy of Egyptian legislation, www.thecairopost.com/news/100972/editors-choice/when-rape-is-not-rape-the-inadequacy-of-egyptian-legislation [dostęp: 16.12.2016].

Ghita O., An analysis of women’s status in the Muslim system as opposed to the European, “AGORA International Journal of Juridical Sciences” 2015, No. 4.

https://quran.com/4/34# [dostęp: 16.12.2016].

Hussein S., Rape in Pakistan, Lahore 1990.

Jones S., Egypt’s New Sexual Assault Law Faces Major Obstacle in Police Who Still Blame the Victims, www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/05/12/egypt-sexual-assault_n_5309458.html [dostęp: 16.12.2016].

Kulik M., Przestępstwo zgwałcenia w ujęciu porównawczym, [w:] Przestępstwo zgwałcenia, red. M. Mozgawa, Warszawa 2012.

Marcus R., Violence Against Women in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Egypt, Sudan, Senegal and Yemen, BRIDGE Institute of Development Studies, Report No. 10, March 1993, www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/sites/bridge.ids.ac.uk/files/reports/re10c.pdf [dostęp: 10.01.2017].

Miller R.A., Rape and the Exception in Turkish and International Law, http://law2.wlu.edu/deptimages/Law%20Review/64-4Miller.pdf [dostęp: 11.01.2017].

Mir-Hosseini Z., Criminalising Sexuality: Zina laws as violence against women in Muslim contexts, “SUR – International Journal on Human Rights” 2011, Vol. 8, No. 15.

Mohd Noor A., Rape: A Problem of Crime Classification in Islamic Law, “Arab Law Quarterly” 2010, Vol. 24.

Muslim Women Association, Femeia in Islam, 2013.

Norweżka zgwałcona w Dubaju skazana za „seks pozamałżeński”, www.tvn24.pl/wiadomosci-ze-swiata,2/norwezka-zgwalcona-w-dubaju-skazana-za-seks-pozamalzenski,340524.html [dostęp: 20.03.2017].

Qureishi A., Her Honour: An Islamic Critique of the Rape Provisions in Pakistan’s Ordinance on Zina, Kuala Lumpur 2002.

Sadie Y., Women’s Rights in the Islamic World: An Overview of Twenty-Six Centuries, “Journal for Islamic Studies” 2000, Vol. 20.

Samir S., Gov’t toughens rape punishment, Kair 2014.

Sanad N., The Theory of Crime and Criminal Responsibility in Islamic Law, Illinois 1991.

Topping A., UAE imprisoning rape victims under extramarital sex laws – investigation, www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/hundreds-of-women-prosecuted-for-extramarital-sex-in-uae-finds-bbc [dostęp: 20.03.2017].

Trew B., Egypt’s sexual assault epidemic, 2013, www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/08/201381494941573782.html [dostęp: 10.01.2017].

Turecki kodeks karny z 2004 r., znowelizowany w 2016 r., https://goo.gl/Qm4IDt [dostęp: 11.01.2017].

United Arab Emirates Penal Code, www.icla.up.ac.za/images/un/use-of-force/asia-pacific/UnitedArabEmirates/Penal%20Code%20United%20Arab%20Emirates%201987.pdf [dostęp: 20.03.2017].

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality, Study on Ways and Methods to Eliminate Sexual Harassment in Egypt, http://harassmap.org/en/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/287_Summaryreport_eng_low-1.pdf [dostęp: 16.12.2016].

U.S. Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2003, www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2003/24470.htm [dostęp: 08.01.2017].

www.mwa.org.au [dostęp: 16.12.2016].

Zbiorowy gwałt na placu Tahrir. Brytyjska dziennikarka przeżyła horror, http://wiadomosci.gazeta.pl/wiadomosci/1,114873,12046344,Zbiorowy_gwalt_na_placu_Tahrir__Brytyjska_dziennikarka.html [dostęp: 16.12.2016].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2017.26.2.111
Data publikacji: 2017-10-27 16:36:15
Data złożenia artykułu: 2017-01-26 15:25:10

Refbacks



Copyright (c) 2017 Robert Sosik

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.