The development of zonal and extrazonal German bodies in the western occupation zones

Michał Domagała

Abstract


The aim of allied superpowers confirmed in the Potsdam agreement was building a new German state authority on all stages of management and maintaining Germany’s state unity. The earliest appointment of German authorities took place at the municipal and lower, district level. The next stage of political development was establishing of new territorial division by occupation authorities in particular countries’zones. However, further development of the political situation in Germany as well of the relations between the Allies led to departing from the conception of one German state and to the establishment of two separate countries in 1949. All the earlier formed German countries were included in new states, except for Saara, which was united with France. Along with organizing the countries and forming of German national bodies, western occupation superpowers began to establish first all-zones German institutions. The first to do it were the Americans. As soon as October 1945 there was called into being the States Council, which in the beginning consisted of national prime ministers. Also the British authorities started creating all-zones institutions relatively quickly; those were: the Conference of National Prime Ministers and the Zonal Advisory Council. Only the French delayed for a long time, forming similar German institutions. It was only the middle of 1948, i.e. after making the decision about the creation of Trizonia that French authorities began to arganize the extranational institution within their zone. At the end of 1946, due to the lack of possibilities to come to agreement on working out a common stance of the four superpowers on the subject of restoring of Germany’s state unity, there were undertaken actions, initiated by the USA, aimed at joining the occupation zones with regard to the economic aspect. This offer was accepted by the Great Britain only, which caused the foundation of so-called Bizonia, whose official name was the United Economic Area. The two-zonal istitutions were: the Economic Council as the quasi-Parliament, the Executive Council, later on transformed into the States Council, which had the features of the second house of Parliament, and the Directors Board, later on the Administrative Council as the quasi-office, as well as, starting from 1948, the Supreme Court. After establishing the Federal Republic of Germany, the so far existing zonal institutions were either dissolved or transformed into federal authorities of the newly created State.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2014.22.0.559
Data publikacji: 2015-04-18 11:34:25
Data złożenia artykułu: 2015-04-14 19:06:03

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