Analysis of the impact of nano-zinc, nano-iron, and nano-manganese fertilizers on chickpea under rain-fed conditions

Naser Sabaghnia, Mohsen Janmohammadi


Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science widely exploited in many scientific fields but its application in agriculture is rarely studied in the world. In the current study, application of nanotechnology in agricultural via the application of some micronutrient nano-fertilizers (nano-zinc, nano-iron, and nano-manganese) and different sulfur fertilizers have been investigated. Three levels of sulfur fertilizer (S1: no application, S2: 15 Kg ha-1, S3: 30 Kg ha-1) and three micronutrients nano-fertilizer (Nano1: nano-chelated zinc, Nano2: nano-chelated iron, and Nano3: nano-chelated manganese) were studied on some morphophysiological traits of chickpea. Results showed that the first two principal components of treatment × trait (TT) biplot accounted to 56% and 18% respectively of total variation. The vertex treatments in polygon biplot were S1-Nano2, S1-Nano3, S2-Nano1, S3-Nano1, and S3-Nano2 which S3-Nano1 treatment indicated high performance in day to maturity, plant height, first pod height, primary branch per plants, secondary branch per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant and 1,000 seed weight. According to vector-view biplot, seed yield was positively associated with the number of pods per plant, harvest index and day to maturity. The ideal treatment identified the S3-Nano1 (30 kg ha-1 sulfur plus nano-chelated zinc) that might be used in selecting superior traits and it can be considered as the candidate treatment. The ideal trait of biplot showed that seed yield had the highest discriminating ability and they were the most representative and as the final target trait of producers, it has the ability of discrimination among different treatm ents. The best fertilizer treatment for obtaining of high seed yield was identified in the vector-view function of TT biplot as S3-Nano1 (30 kg ha-1 sulfur plus nano-chelated zinc).


nano-fertilizer; nanotechnology; yield components

Full Text:



Ahlawat, I.P.S., Gangaiah, B., Ashraf-Zadid, M. 2007. Nutrient management in chickpea. In: Chickpea breeding and management (Yadav, S.S., Redden, R., Chen, W., Sharma, B. Ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, United Kingdom, pp. 213–232.

Amirnia, R., Bayat, M., Tajbakhsh, M. 2014. Effects of nano fertilizer application and maternal corm weight on flowering at some saffron (Crocus sativus L.) ecotypes. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 19: 158–168.

Bala, N., Dey, A., Das, S., Basu, R., Nandy, P. 2014. Effect of hydroxyapatite nanorod on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) plant growth and its possible use as nano-fertilizer. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology, 4: 1061–1069.

Cakmak, I., Yilmaz, A., Kalayci, M., Ekiz, H., Torun, B., Erenoglu, B., Braun, H.J. 1996. Zinc deficiency as a critical problem in wheat production in central Anatolia. Plant and Soil, 180: 165–172.

Epstein, E., Bloom, A.J. 2005. Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives, 2nd edition. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates.

Ghasemi-Fasaei, R., Ronaghi, A., Maftoun, M., Karimian, N.A. Soltanpour, P.N. 2005. Ironmanganese interaction in chickpea a affected by foliar and soil application of iron in a calcareous soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36: 1717–1725.

Graham, P.H., Vance, C.P., 2000. Nitrogen fixation in perspective, an overview of research and extension needs. Field Crops Research, 65: 93–106.

Havlin, J. L., J. D. Beaton, S. L. Tisdale, and W. L. Nelson. 2005. Soil fertility and fertilizer: An introduction to nutrient management. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, Inc.

Heitholt, J.J., Sloan, J.J., Mackown, C.T. 2002. Copper, Manganese, and Zinc Fertilization Effects on Growth of Soybean on a Calcareous Soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25: 1727–1740.

Hussain, K., 2010. Sulphur and rhizobacteria application for enhancing nitrogen fixation in soybean. M. Sc. Thesis. Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Islam, M., Mohsan S., Ali, S., Khalid, R., Afzal, S. 2012. Response of chickpea to various levels of phosphorus and sulphur under rainfed conditions in Pakistan. Romanian Agricultural Research, 29: 175–183.

Jeena, A.S., Arora, P.P., Ojha, O.P. 2005. Variabiltiy and correlation studies for yield and its components in chickpea. Legume Research, 28: 146–148.

Jinghua, G. 2004. Synchrotron radiation, soft X-ray spectroscopy and nano-materials. Journal of Nanotechnology 1: 1–21.

Khan, H.R., McDonald K., Rengel, Z. 1998. Chickpea genotypes differ in their sensitivity to Zn deficiency. Plant and Soil, 198: 11–18.

Khan, H.R., McDonald, G.K., Rengel, Z. 2004. Zinc fertilization and water stress affects plant water relations, stomatal conductance and osmotic adjustment in chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.). Plant and Soil, 267: 271–284.

Kharol, S., Sharma, M., Lal, M., Sumeriya, H.K. 2014. Productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by sulphur and zinc under agroclimatic zone IV-A of Rajasthan. Annals of Biology, 30: 676–680.

Kumar, A., Suresh-Babu, G., Roopa-Lavanya, G. 2012. Character association and path analysis in early segregating population in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Legume Research, 35:337–340.

Liu, X., Feng, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Xiao, Q., Wang, Y. 2006. Preparation and testing of cementing nano-subnano composites of slow- or controlled release of fertilizers. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 39: 1598–604.

Meyveci, K., Eyupoglu, H., Karagullu, E., Zencirci, N., Aydin, N. 1998. The yield effect of advanced lines and genetic resources of zinc fertilizer application on some chickpea varieties. Zinc Natl. Congress, 425–430.

Mortvedt, J.J. 1991. Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Annual and Perennial Plants: Present Technologies and Future Prospects. Plant and Soil, 130: 273–279.

Pahlavan Rad, M.R., Pessarakli, M. 2009. Response of wheat plants to zinc, iron, and manganese applications and uptake and concentration of zinc, iron, and manganese in wheat grains. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 40, 1322–1332.

Roomizadeh, S., Karimian, N. 1996. Manganese-iron relationship in soybean grown in calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 19: 397–406.

Roy, R.N., Finck, A., Blair, G.J., Tandon, H.L.S. 2006. Plant nutrition for food security. A guide for integrated nutrient management. FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 16. Rome, Italy, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Subramanian, K.S., Tarafdar, J.C. 2011. Prospects of nanotechnology in Indian farming. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 81: 887–893.

Thakur, S.K., Sirohi, A. 2009. Correlation and path coefficient analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under different seasons. Legume Research, 32: 1–6.

Valenciano J.B., Boto, J.A., Marcelo, V. 2010. Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) yield to zinc, boron and molybdenum application under pot conditions. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8: 797–807.

Yan, W., Fregeau-Reid, J. 2008. Breeding line selection based on multiple traits. Crop Science, 48: 417–423.

Yan, W., Kang, M.S. 2003. GGE biplot analysis: A graphical tool for breeders, geneticists, and agronomists. CRC.

Yan, W., Rajcan, I. 2002. Biplot analysis of test sites and trait relations of soybean in Ontario. Crop Science, 42: 11–20.

Yan, W., Tinker, N.A. 2006. Biplot analysis of multienvironment trial data: Principles and applications. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 86: 623–645.

Yan, W. 2001. GGEbiplot: A windows application for graphical analysis of multi-environment trial data and other types of two-way data. Agronomy Journal, 93: 1111–1118.

Yan, W., Cornelius, P.L., Crossa, J., Hunt, L.A. 2001. Two types of GGE biplots for analyzing multi-environment trial data. Crop Science, 41: 656–663.

Zaiter, H.Z., Clark, R.B., Lindgren, D.T., Nordquist, P.T., Stroup, W.W., Pavlish, L.A. 1992. Leaf chlorosis and seed yield of dry beans grown on high-pH calcareous soil following foliar iron sprays. HortScience, 27: 983–985.

FAOSTAT (2013) FAOSTAT data of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Data publikacji: 2016-10-20 11:11:19
Data złożenia artykułu: 2016-10-19 12:13:46


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Naser Sabaghnia, Naser Sabaghnia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.