Relationship between allophane with labile carbon and nitrogen fractions of soil in organic and conventional vegetable farming systems

Fajar Hidayanto, Benito Heru Purwanto, Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami


Allophane is a characteristic of Andisols whose presence can absorb soil organic matter. One of soil organic matter fractions called the “labile fraction” is currently an appropriate indicator in determining soil quality. However, there is limited information concerning the relationship between allophane and the labile fraction. This study assessed the content of allophane by selective dissolution methods and calculated the labile fraction of particulate organic matter and microbial activity related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) soil cycles in organic and conventional vegetable farming systems of two depths (0–25 cm and 25–50 cm). The content of the labile fractions of C and N in organic farming systems is higher than in conventional farming systems, which is also higher in the upper layer compared to the lower layer. However, the availability of allophane in the upper layer and organic system tends to be low. Therefore, allophane has a strong negative correlation with the labile fractions of carbon and nitrogen. The results of this study estimate that phosphorus (P) sorption is higher in soils containing quite high allophane. Hence, an organic farming system that has low allophane content will result in higher P availability for plants.


allophane, labile fraction, farming system, organic, conventional

Full Text:



Adugna, A., Abegaz, A., 2015. Effects of soil depth on the dynamics of selected soil properties among the highlands resources of Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia: are these sign of degradation?. Solid Earth Discuss, 7: 2011–2035. DOI:10.5194/sed-7-2011-2015

Bartoli, F., Poulenard, A.J., Schouller, B.E., 2007. Influence of allophane and organic matter contents on surface properties of Andosols. European Journal of Soil Science, 58: 450-464. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00899.x

Blakemore, L.C., Searle, P.L., Daly, B.K., 1987. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Soils. NZ Soil Bureau Scientific Report 80. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Lower Hutt. New Zealand. 103p.

Buurman, P., Peterse, F., Almendros, G., 2007. Soil organic matter chemistry in allophanic soils: A pyrolysis-GC/MS study of a Costa Rican Andosol catena. European Journal of Soil Science, 58(6).

Cambardella, C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56: 777–783. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1992.03615995005600030017x

Carter, M.R., Angers, D.A., Gregorich, E.G., Bolinder, M.A., 2003. Characterizing organic matter retention for surface soils in eastern Canada using density and particle size fractions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 83:11-23.

Celik, I., 2005. Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil & Tillage Research, 83: 270–277. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2004.08.001

Chevallier, T., Woignier, T., Toucet, J., Blanchart, E., 2010. Organic carbon stabilization in the fractal pore structure of Andosols. Geoderma, 159: 182–188. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.07.010

Fortuna, A., Harwood, R.R., Paul, E.A., 2003. The effects of compost and crop rotations on carbon turnover and the particulate organic matter fraction. Soil Science, 168: 434–444. DOI: 10.1097/

Furtak, K., Galazka, A., 2019. Effect of organic farming on soil microbiological parameters. Polish Journal of Soil Science, 52(2): 259-267. DOI: 10.17951/pjss/2019.52.2.259

García-Rodeja, E., Nóvoa, J. C., Pontevedra, X., Martínez-Cortizas, A., Buurman, P., 2004. Aluminium fractionation of European volcanic soils by selective dissolution techniques. Catena, 56: 155-183. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2003.10.009.

Gentili, R., Ambrosini, R., Montagnani, C., Caronni, S., Citterio, S., 2018. Effect of soil pH on the growth, reproductive investment and pollen allergenicity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9:1335. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01335

Giles, J., 2005. Nitrogen study fertilizers fears of pollution. Nature, 433(7028): 791–791. DOI: 10.1038/433791a

Gosling, P., Parsons, N., Bending, G.D., 2013. What are the primary factors controlling the light fraction and particulate soil organic matter content of agricultural soils?. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 49: 1001–1014. DOI: 10.1007/s00374-013-0791-9

Harsh, J., 2005. Amorphous Materials. An overview in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment. 64-71p.

Haynes, R.J., 2005. Labile organic matter fractions as central components of the quality of agricultural soils: An overview. In: D.L. Sparks, Advances of Agronomy, 85: 221–268. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(04)85005-3

Kumari, M., Verma, S.C., Shweta., 2017. Climate change and vegetable crops cultivation: A review. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 88: 167-174.

Lehmann, J., Cravo, M.D.S., Zech, W., 2001. Organic matter stabilization in a Xanthic Ferralsol of the central Amazon as affected by single trees: chemical characterization of density, aggregate, and particle size fractions. Geoderma, 99: 147–168,

Li J., Wena Y., Li, X., Li, Y., Yanga, X., Lina, Z., Songb, Z., Cooper, J.M., Zhao, B., 2018. Soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil organic carbon stocks as affected by long-term organic and mineral fertilization regimes in the North China Plain. Soil & Tillage Research, 175:281–290. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2017.08.008

Marriot, E.E., Wander, M.E., 2006. Total and labile soil organic matter in organic and conventional farming systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(3): 950–959. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0241

Melero, S., Panettieri, M., Madejón, E., Macpherson, H.G., Moreno, F., Murillo, J.M., 2011. Implementation of chiselling and mouldboard ploughing in soil after 8 years of no-till management in SW, Spain: Effect on soil quality. Soil Tillage Research, 112: 107–113. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2010.12.001

Mora, M.L., Canales, J., 1995. Interactions of humic substances with allophanic compounds. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 26: 2805–2817. DOI: 10.1080/00103629509369489

Msanya, B.M., Munishi, J.A., Amuri, N., Semu, E., Mhoro, L., Malley, Z., 2016. Morphology, Genesis, Physico-chemical Properties, Classification and Potential of Soils Derived from Volcanic Parent Materials in Selected Districts of Mbeya Region, Tanzania. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 10: 1-19. DOI: 10.9734/IJPSS/2016/24855

Nanzyo, M., 2002. Unique properties of volcanic ash soils. Global Environmental Research, 6: 99-112.

Nath A. J., Bhattacharyya, T., Deka, J., Das, A.K., Ray, S.K., 2015. Management effect on soil organic carbon pools in lowland rain-fed paddy growing soil. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 53: 131-138.

Okore, I.K., Tijani-Eniola, H., Agboola, A.A., Aiyelari, E.A., 2007. Impact of land clearing methods and cropping systems on labile soil C and N pools in the humid zone Forest of Nigeria Agriculture. Ecosystems and Environment, 120: 250–258. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2006.09.011

Parfitt, R.L., Henmi, T., 1982. Comparison of an oxalate-extraction method and an infrared spectroscopic method for determining allophane in soil clays. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 28(2): 183–190.

Parfitt, R.L., 2009. Allophane and imogolite: role in soil biogeochemical processes. Clay Minerals, 44: 135–155. DOI: 10.1180/claymin.2009.044.1.135

Piao, H.C., Liu, G.S., Wu, Y.Y., Xu. W.B., 2011. Relationship of soil microbial biomass carbon and organic carbon with environmental parameters in mountainous soils of Southwest China. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 33: 347–350.

Plaza-Bonilla, D., Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Cantero-Martínez, C., 2014. Identifying soil organic carbon fractions sensitive to agricultural management practices. Soil Tillage Research. 139: 19–22.

Poirier V., Denis A.A., Philippe, R., Whaen, J.K., 2013. Initial soil organic carbon concentration influences the short-term retention of crop-residue carbon in the fine fraction of a heavy clay soil. Biology and Fertility Soils, 49: 527-525. DOI: 10.1007/s00374-013-0794-6

Rodriguez, A.R., Arbelo, C.D., Guerra, J.A., Mora, J.L., Notario, J.S., Armas, C.M., 2006. Organic carbon stocks and soil erodibility in Canary Islands Andosols. Catena. 66: 228–235. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2006.02.001

Rumpel, C., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, A., González-Pérez, J.A., Arbelo, C., Chabbi, A., Nunan, N., González-Vila, F.J., 2012. Contrasting composition of free and mineral-bound organic matter in top- and subsoil horizons of Andosols. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48: 401–411.

Saggar, S., Tate, K.R., Feltham, C.W., Childs, C.W., Parshotam, A., 1994. Carbon turnover in a range of allophanic soils amended with C-14-labeled glucose. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26: 1263–1271. DOI: 10.1016/0038-0717(94)90152-X

Salas, A.M., Elliott, E.T., Westfall, D.G., Cole, C.V., Six, J., 2003. The role of particulate organic matter in phosphorus cycling. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67: 181–189. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2003.0181

Sharifi, M., Zebarth, B.J., Burton, D.L., Gran, C.A., Cooper, J.M., 2007. Evaluation of some indices of potentially mineralizable nitrogen in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71: 1233-1239. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2006.0265

Six, J., Elliott, E.T., Paustian, K., 1999. Aggregate and soil organic matter dynamics under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63:1350-1358. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1999.6351350x

Skjemstad, J.O., Swift, R.S., McGowan, J.A., 2006. Comparison of the particulate organic carbon and permanganate oxidation methods for estimating labile soil organic carbon. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 44: 255–263,

Soil Survey Staff., 2014. Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report. No. 42 (Version 5.0). R. Burt and Soil Survey Staff (ed.). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1031p.

Stockdale, E.A., Lampkin, N.H., Hovi M., Keatinge, R., Lennartsson, E.K.M., Macdonald, D.W., Padel, S., Tattersall, F.H., Wolfe, M.S., Watson, C.A., 2000. Agronomic and environmental implications of organic farming systems. Advances in Agronomy, 70: 261-327.

Takahashi, T., Dahlgren, R.A., 2015. Nature, properties and function of aluminum–humus complexes in volcanic soils. Geoderma, 263:110–121.

Takahashi, T., Ikeda, Y., Fujita, K. and Nanzyo, M., 2006. Effect of liming o organically complexed aluminium of nonallophanic Andisols from northeastern Japan. Geoderma, 130: 26–34. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.01.006.

Tavares, R. L. M., Nahas, E., 2014. Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45: 963–969.

Valladares, G.S., Pereira, M. G., dos Anjos, L. H. C., Benites, V. M., Ebeling, A. G., Mouta, R.O., 2007. Humic substance fractions and attributes of histosols and related high-organic matter soils from Brazil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38: 763–777.

Van Ranst, E., Utami, S.R., Vanderdeeleen, J., Shamshuddin, J., 2004. Surface reactivity of Andisols on volcanic ash along the Sunda arc crossing Java Island, Indonesia. Geoderma, 123: 193–203.

Wang, W.J., Dalal, R.C., Moody, P.W., Smith, C.J., 2003. Relationships of soil respiration to microbial biomass, substrate availability and clay content. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 35: 273–284.

Willson, T.C., Paul, E.A., Harwood, R.R., 2001. Biologically active soil organic matter fractions in sustainable cropping systems. Applied Soil Ecology, 16: 63–76.

Yang, S., Zhang, Z., Cong, L., Wang, X., Shi, S., 2013. Effect of fulvic acid on the phosphorus availability in acid soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 13(3): 526-533.

Zakharova, A., Beare, M.H., Cieraada, E., Curtin, D., Turnbull, M.H., Millard, P., 2015. Factors controlling labile soil organic matter vulnerability to loss following disturbance as assessed by measurement of soil-respired δ13CO2. European Journal of Soil Science, 66: 135–144.

Zhang, J., Bo, G., Zhang, Z., Kong, F., Wang, Y., Shen, G., 2016. Effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzymes, and aggregate stability in tobacco fields of China. Sustainability. 8: 710–721.

Zhang, J., Wang, J., An, T., Wei, D., Chi, F., Zhou, B., 2017. Effects of long-term fertilization on soil humic acid composition and structure in Black Soil. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0186918. DOI: 1371/journal.pone.0186918

Data publikacji: 2020-12-26 01:25:48
Data złożenia artykułu: 2020-02-15 11:47:49


Total abstract view - 1005
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 730



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Fajar Hidayanto, Benito Heru Purwanto, Sri Nuryani Hidayah Utami

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.