Legal Comparison of Freedom of Expression and Freedom of the Press in the Republic of Armenia and in the Republic of Poland

Wojciech Lis

Abstract


Freedom of expression and freedom of the press form guarantee and emphasize the democratic character of a state. The dissemination of information and opinions is a prerequisite of democracy, which essentially requires that citizens be guaranteed the possibility to participate in public affairs. An opportunity to learn some information and opinions is of paramount importance for broadening knowledge, sharpening the critical mind, shaping one’s own views and making rational and informed choices. For full access to information and opinions circulating in the public, it is necessary that it should be made public and media and their journalists will make it in the best way. The aim of this study was to compare constitutional legal solutions concerning freedom of expression and freedom of the press and the way they are effectuated in practice in theRepublicofArmeniaand in theRepublicofPoland.


Keywords


freedom of expression; freedom of the press; press activity; tasks of journalists; access to public information; contemporary threats

References


LITERATURE

Balasanyan G., Freedom of Information and Media Law in Armenia 2016, https://hetq.am/en/article/79755 [access: 28.12.2019].

Central Intelligence Agency, The world factbook: Armenia, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/am.html [access: 28.12.2019].

Central Intelligence Agency, The world factbook: Poland, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pl.html [access: 28.12.2019].

Joint Message by the UN Secretary-General and the UNESCO Director-General for the 2013 Observance, 3 May 2013, www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/statement/2013-05-02/joint-message-secretary-general-un-ban-ki-moon-and-ms-irina-bokova [access: 30.03.2019].

Lis W., Wolność prasy i innych środków społecznego przekazu jako zasada ustrojowa, „Studia Medioznawcze” 2012, nr 4.

Lis W., Wolność wypowiedzi gwarancją demokracji, „Studium Vilnense A” 2010, t. 7.

Reporters Without Borders, 2019 World Press Freedom Index, https://rsf.org/en/ranking# [access: 28.12.2019].

LEGAL ACTS

Constitution of the Republic of Armenia of 5 July 1995, www.parliament.am/parliament.php?id=constitution〈=eng [access: 28.12.2019].

Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2 April 1997 (Journal of Laws 1997, No. 78, item 483 as amended).

CASE LAW

Judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 11 October 2006, P 3/06, LEX No. 210809.

Judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 30 October 2006, P 10/06, LEX No. 210825.

Judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 20 February 2007, P 1/06, LEX No. 245357.

Judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 9 November 2010, K 13/07, LEX No. 612153.

Judgement of the European Tribunal of Human Rights of 7 December 1976 in the case of Handyside vs The United Kingdom, Application No. 5493/72.

Judgement of the European Tribunal of Human Rights of 8 July 1986 in the case Lingens vs Austria, Application No. 8815/82.

Judgement of the European Tribunal of Human Rights of 23 April 1992 in the case of Castells vs Spain, Application No. 11798/85.

Judgement of the European Tribunal of Human Rights of 1 July 1997 in the case Oberschlick vs Austria, Application No. 20834/92.

Judgement of the European Tribunal of Human Rights of 20 May 1999 in the case Bladet Tromsø and Stensaas vs Norway, Application No. 21980/93.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2020.29.1.145-159
Data publikacji: 2020-03-29 19:06:40
Data złożenia artykułu: 2020-01-23 20:32:47


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