The Council of Europe Activity for Culture

Aleksandra Chyc

Abstract


The article is devoted to issues related to the activities of the Council of Europe for culture. The aim of the study was to show that the Council of Europe is an important international organization. The author analyzed the literature on the subject devoted to the Council of Europe, and characterized the legal achievements of this organization and its activities in the field of culture. Initiatives and cultural projects of the Council of Europe were discussed. A thesis has been put forward that the Council of Europe is a significant international organization which protects the cultural heritage of Europe. The functions of the Council of Europe and its importance as an organization operating in the field of culture, as well as guarding the acquis communautaire and principles based on the rule of law, democracy and respect for human rights, were analyzed. The article is a synthetic presentation of the role of the Council of Europe in the international arena. It presents, i.a., the ongoing discussion about the crisis of international organizations and shows the significant importance of the Council of Europe in shaping appropriate international relations in Europe.


Keywords


Council of Europe; culture; rule of law; democracy; human rights; cultural heritage

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References


LITERATURE

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NETOGRAPHY

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LEGAL ACTS

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocols no. 3, 5, 8 and supplemented by Protocol no. 2, Rome, 4 November 1950 (Journals of Laws 1993, no. 61, item 284 as amended).

Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe, Granada, 3 October 1985 (ETS no. 121; Journals of Laws 2012, item 210).

Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society, Faro, 27 October 2005, CETS no. 199.

Council of Europe Convention on Cinematographic Co-production (revised), Rotterdam, 30 January 2017, ETS no. 220.

Council of Europe Convention on Offences relating to Cultural Property, 3 May 2017, ETS no. 221.

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Strasbourg, 5 November 1992 (ETS no. 148; Journals of Laws 2009, no. 137, item 1121).

European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage, London, 6 May 1969, ETS no. 066.

European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (revised), La Valetta, 16 January 1992 (ETS no. 143; Journals of Laws 1996, no. 120, item 564).

European Convention for the Protection of the Audiovisual Heritage, Strasbourg, 8 November 2001, ETS no. 183.

European Cultural Convention, Paris, 19 December 1954 (ETS no. 018; Journals of Laws 1990, no. 8, item 44).

European Landscape Convention, Florence, 20 October 2000 (ETS no. 176; Journals of Laws 2006, no. 14, item 98).

DECLARATIONS OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE

Arc-et-Senans Declaration adopted by the Colloquium on the Future of Cultural Development on 11 April 1972.

Baku Declaration for the Promotion of Intercultural Dialogue adopted by the Ministers responsible for Cultural Affairs of the States parties to the European Cultural Convention, meeting in Baku, on 2 and 3 December 2008.

Bremen Declaration “Town and culture: new responses to cultural problems” adopted by the Council for Cultural Co-operation and the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe on 27 May 1983.

Declaration regarding intolerance – A threat to democracy adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 May 1981.

Declaration on a European Policy for New Information Technologies adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 May 1999.

Declaration on Cultural Diversity adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 December 2000.

Declaration on the protection and rebuilding of places of worship in Kosovo and the wider Balkans adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 18 July 2001.

European Declaration on Cultural Objectives adopted by the 4th Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Cultural Affairs on 24 May 1984.

Faro Declaration on the Council of Europe’s Strategy for Developing Intercultural Dialogue adopted by the Ministers responsible for Cultural Affairs of the States parties to the European Cultural Convention, meeting in Faro on 27 and 28 October 2005.

Final Statement – 10th Council of Europe Conference of Ministers of Culture, Moscow, 16 April 2013.

Florence Declaration “Culture and regions: cultural action in the regional context” adopted by the Council for Cultural Co-operation and the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe on 16 May 1987.

The Namur Declaration adopted at the 6th session of the Council of Europe Conference of Ministers responsible for Cultural Heritage, Namur, Belgium, 23–24 April 2015.

Wrocław Declaration on Fifty Years of European Cultural Cooperation adopted by the Ministers responsible for Culture, Education, Youth and Sport from the States parties to the European Cultural Convention on 10 December 2004.

RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE

Recommendation 718 (1973) on the exercise of freedom of artistic expression in the work of the CSCE adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 September 1973.

Recommendation 781 (1976) on Council of Europe action for the future of the performing arts adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 4 May 1976.

Recommendation 719 (1977) on the exercise of freedom of artistic expression adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 6 October 1977.

Recommendation 815 (1977) on freedom of expression and the role of the writer in Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 6 October 1977.

Recommendation 862 (1979) on cinema and the state adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 11 May 1979.

Recommendation 917 (1981) on the designation of 1985 as European Music Year adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 26 March 1981.

Recommendation 929 (1981) on music education for all adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 8 October 1981.

Recommendation 963 (1983) on cultural and educational means of reducing violence adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 January 1983.

Recommendation 1001 (1985) on European Music Yearadopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 January 1985.

Recommendation no. R (85) 6 on aid for artistic creation adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 May 1985.

Recommendation no. R (85) 8 on the conservation of the European film heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 May 1985.

Recommendation 1011 (1985) on the situation of professional dance in Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 4 July 1985.

Recommendation 1018 (1985) on private sponsorship of the arts adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 September 1985.

Recommendation no. R (86) 3 on the promotion of audiovisual production in Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 February 1986.

Recommendation no. R (86) 9 on copyright and cultural policy adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 22 May 1986.

Recommendation no. R (86) 15 on the promotion of craft trades involved in the conservation of the architectural heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 16 October 1986.

Recommendation no. R (87) 7 on film distribution in Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 20 March 1987.

Recommendation no. R (87) 11 on co-operation among research libraries in Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 26 May 1987.

Recommendation 1059 (1987) on the economics of culture adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 1 July 1987.

Recommendation 1067 (1987) on the cultural dimension of broadcasting in Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 8 October 1987.

Recommendation no. R (87) 24 on European industrial towns adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 22 October 1987.

Recommendation no. (88) 5 on control of physical deterioration of the architectural heritage accelerated by pollution adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 29 February 1988.

Recommendation 1072 (1988) on the international protection of cultural property and the circulation of works of art adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 23 March 1988.

Recommendation 1073 (1988) on follow-up to European Music Year adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 23 March 1988.

Recommendation 1104 (1989) on dance adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 15 March 1989.

Recommendation no. R (89) 5 concerning the protection and enhancement of the archaeological heritage in the context of town and country planning operations adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 3 April 1989.

Recommendation no. (89) 6 on the protection and enhancement of the rural architectural heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 3 April 1989.

Recommendation no. R (90) 10 on cinema for children and adolescents adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 April 1990.

Recommendation no. R (90) 20 on the protection and conservation of the industrial, technical and civil engineering heritage in Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 10 September 1990.

Recommendation 1138 (1990) on the European Support Fund for the co-production and distribution of creative cinematographic and audiovisual works “EURIMAGES” adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 22 November 1990.

Recommendation no. R (91) 6 on the measures likely to promote the funding of the conservation of the architectural heritagebadopted by the Committee of Ministers on 11 April 1991.

Recommendation no. R (91) 13 on the protection of the twentieth century architectural heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 9 September 1991.

Recommendation 1173 (1992) on the preservation of libraries and scientific archives in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 3 February 1992.

Recommendation 1216 (1993) on European cultural co-operation adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 1 July 1993.

Recommendation no. R (93) 9 on the protection of the architectural heritage against natural disasters adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 23 November 1993.

Recommendation 1234 (1994) on a European prize for young writers and artists adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 February 1994.

Recommendation 1239 (1994) on the cultural situation in the former Yugoslavia adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 14 April 1994.

Recommendation no. R (95) 3 on co-ordinating documentation methods and systems related to historic buildings and monuments of the architectural heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 11 January 1995.

Recommendation 1265 (1995) on enlargement and European cultural co-operation adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 25 April 1995.

Recommendation 1291 (1996) on Yiddish culture adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 20 March 1996.

Recommendation no. R (96) 6 on the protection of the cultural heritage against unlawful acts adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 June 1996.

Recommendation 1299 (1996) on European cultural co-operation: activities of the European Union and relations with the Council of Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 25 June 1996.

Recommendation no. R (97) 2 on sustained care of the cultural heritage against physical deterioration due to pollution and other similar factors adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 4 February 1997.

Recommendation 1372 (1998) on the Unidroit Convention on stolen or illegally exported cultural property adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 26 May 1998.

Recommendation no. R (2000) 1 on fostering transfrontier co-operation between territorial communities in the cultural field adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 12 January 2000.

Recommendation no. R (2000) 13 on a European Policy on Access to Archives adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 13 July 2000.

Recommendation 1484 (2000) on management of cathedrals and other major religious buildings in use adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 9 November 2000.

Recommendation 1485 (2000) on disused hospitals and military buildings adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 9 November 2000.

Recommendation 1486 (2000) on maritime and fluvial cultural heritage adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 9 November 2000.

Recommendation 1521 (2001) on the Csango minority culture in Romania adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 23 May 2001.

Recommendation 1556 (2002) on religion and change in central and eastern Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 24 April 2002.

Recommendation 1566 (2002) on European cultural co-operation and the future role of the Assembly adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 24 June 2002.

Recommendation no. R (2003) 1 on the promotion of tourism to foster the cultural heritage as a factor for sustainable development adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 15 January 2003.

Recommendation 1590 (2003) on cultural co-operation between Europe and the south Mediterranean countries adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 January 2003.

Recommendation 1599 (2003) on the cultural situation in the South Caucasus adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 1 April 2003.

Recommendation 1621 (2003) on the promotion of art history in Europe adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 8 September 2003.

Recommendation 1634 (2003) Tax incentives for cultural heritage conservation adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 25 November 2003.

Recommendation 1651 (2004) Ending the plundering of African cultural objects adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 2 March 2004.

Recommendation 1674 (2004) on challenges facing the European audiovisual sector adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 7 September 2004.

Recommendation 1687 (2004) Combating terrorism through culture adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 23 November 2004.

Recommendation 1688 (2004) on diaspora cultures adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 23 November 2004.

Recommendation 177 (2005) on cultural identity in peripheral urban areas: the role of local and regional authorities adopted by the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities on 9 November 2005.

Recommendation 1730 (2005) The private management of cultural property adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 25 November 2005.

Recommendation No R (2005) 13 on the governance and management of university heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 December 2005.

Recommendation no. R (2006) 3 on the UNESCO Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 1 February 2006.

Recommendation 1751 (2006) on cultural diversity of the North Caucasus adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 29 May 2006.

Recommendation 1758 (2006) on the follow-up to the Third Summit concerning priority for cultural co-operation adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 June 2006.

Recommendation 1804 (2007) on state, religion, secularity and human rights adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 29 June 2007.

Recommendation 1805 (2007) on blasphemy, religious insults and hate speech against persons on grounds of their religion adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 29 June 2007.

Recommendation CM/Rec(2009)7 on national film policies and the diversity of cultural expressions adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 23 September 2009.

Recommendation 1851 (2008) on “Crafts and cultural heritage conservation skills” adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 25 September 2009.

Recommendation 1884 (2009) Cultural education: The promotion of cultural knowledge, creativity and intercultural understanding through education adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 29 September 2009.

Recommendation 1942 (2010) A balanced approach to the rescuing of archaeological finds from development projects adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 12 November 2010.

Recommendation Rec(2011)6 on intercultural dialogue and the image of the other in history teaching adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 6 July 2011.

Recommendation 1990 (2012) The right of everyone to take part in cultural life adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 24 January 2012.

Recommendation 2038 (2014) Europe’s endangered heritage adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 7 March 2014.

Recommendation 2049 (2014) Identities and diversity within intercultural societies adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 25 June 2014.

Recommendation CM/Rec(2015)/1 on Intercultural integration adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 21 January 2015.

Recommendation 2071 (2015) Cultural heritage in crisis and post-crisis situations adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 22 May 2015.

Recommendation CM/Rec(2016)2 on the Internet of citizens adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 10 February 2016.

Recommendation CM/Rec(2017)8 on Big Data for culture, literacy and democracy, adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 27 September 2017.

Recommendation CM/Rec(2018)10 on culture’s contribution to strengthening the internet as an emancipatory force adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 November 2018.

RESOLUTIONS OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE

Resolution (58) 13 on the Cultural Fund of the Council of Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 16 June 1958.

Resolution (61) 39 on cultural and scientific co-operation – Setting up of the Council for Cultural Co-operation adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 16 December 1961.

Resolution (66) 19 on criteria and methods of cataloguing ancient buildings and historical or artistic sites adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 21 March 1966.

Resolution (66) 20 on the reviving of monuments adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 21 March 1966.

Resolution (68) 11 on the principles and practice of the active preservation and rehabilitation of groups and areas of buildings of historical or artistic interest adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 29 April 1968.

Resolution (68) 12 on the active maintenance of monuments, groups and areas of buildings of historical or artistic interest within the context of regional planning adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 29 April 1968.

Resolution (68) 16 on the organisation of a conference of ministers most directly responsible for the preservation and rehabilitation of groups and areas of buildings of historical or artistic interest adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 27 May 1968.

Resolution (70) 19 on educational and cultural uses of radio and television in Europe and the relations in this respect between public authorities and broadcasting organizations adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 5 June 1970.

Resolution (70) 22 on the preservation and renovation of Venice adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 1 June 1970.

Resolution (72) 16 on the preservation and renovation of Venice adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 15 May 1972.

Resolution (72) 20 on interim measures for the protection of the cultural heritage of monuments and sites adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 24 May 1972.

Resolution (72) 21 on the compilation of national inventories of monuments, groups of buildings and sites of historical or artistic interest adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 24 May 1972.

Resolution 531 (1972) on freedom of expression and the role of the artist in society adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 20 October 1972.

Resolution 553 (1973) on violation of freedom of expression adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 September 1973.

Resolution (76) 28 concerning the adaptation of laws and regulations to the requirements of integrated conservation of the architectural heritage adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 5 April 1976.

Resolution 624 (1976) on the democratic renewal of the performing arts adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 4 May 1976.

Resolution 800 (1983) on the principles of democracy adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 1 July 1983.

Resolution 834 (1985) on European Music Year adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 January 1985.

Resolution (85) 6 on European cultural identity adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 25 April 1985.

Resolution 848 (1985) on privacy of sound and individual freedom of musical choice adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 September 1985.

Resolution (86) 3 on European cultural co-operation adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 23 April 1986.

Resolution (88) 15 setting up a European support fund for the co-production and distribution of creative cinematographic and audiovisual works (« Eurimages »)adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 26 October 1988.

Resolution (89) 6 modifying Resolution (88) 15 – setting up a European support fund for the co-production and distribution of creative cinematographic and audiovisual works (“Eurimages”) adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 15 June 1989.

Resolution (92) 3 modifying Resolution (88) 15 – setting up a European support fund for the co-production and distribution of creative cinematographic and audiovisual works (“Eurimages”) adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 10 February 1992.

Resolution 236 (92) on a new municipal policy for multicultural integration in Europe and the Frankfurt Declaration adopted by the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe on 19 March 1992.

Resolution (98) 4 on the cultural routes of the Council of Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 17 March 1998.

Resolution 1171 (98) on the endangered Uralic minority cultures adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 29 September 1998.

Resolution 1313 (2003) on cultural co-operation between Europe and the south Mediterranean countries adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 January 2003.

Resolution 1510 (2006) on freedom of expression and respect for religious beliefs adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 28 June 2006.

Resolution 1519 (2006) on the cultural situation of the Kurds adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly on 4 October 2006.

Resolution (2007) 12 on the cultural routes of the Council of Europe adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 10 October 2007.

Resolution Res(2010)52 on the rules for the award of the “Cultural Route of the Council of Europe” certification adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 8 December 2010.

Resolution Res(2010)53 establishing an Enlarged Partial Agreement on Cultural Routes adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 8 December 2010.

Resolution Res(2013)66 confirming the establishment of the Enlarged Partial Agreement on Cultural Routes (EPA) adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 18 December 2013.

Resolution Res(2013)67 revising the rules for the award of the “Cultural Route of the Council of Europe” certification adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 18 December 2013.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2021.30.2.81-110
Data publikacji: 2021-06-30 23:18:46
Data złożenia artykułu: 2019-11-05 18:29:20


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