Frames of Wall Street – How America’s Candidates Perceived Financial Markets During the Presidential Campaign in 2016 – Reconnaissance

Tomasz Gackowski


In this article, the author presents the concept of framing and analyzes various frames of Wall Street which occurred during the 2016 presidential elections in presidential candidates’ statements. Referring to Robert M. Entman (1993), the author of the article comments on how presidential candidates were perceiving Wall Street (the role, function and challenges) during the 2016 presidential campaign in the United States and, ipso facto, trying to set in public discourse, through media, using specific frames of capital market. What kind of frames did they use when they were discussing about financial markets in the campaign? Thanks to such sources like or, the author has gathered and analysed several (almost 80) presidential candidates’ speeches and statements dedicated to Wall Street. The author came to the main conclusion that almost each of the presidential candidates proposed to media and, in consequence to voters, mostly negative perception of Wall Street by using – according to Russell Neuman, Marion R. Just and Ann Crigler (1992) as well as Holli Semetko and Patti Valkenburg (2002) – "conflict", "attribution of responsibility", "morality" and "economic consequences" frames.


frames; framing, Wall Street; American elections; discourse

Full Text:



Carter M.J. (2013). Th hermeneutics of frames and framing. An examination of the media’s construction of reality. Sage Open, Vol. 3(2), pp. 1–12.

Cirilli K., Cusack B. (2015). Trump: Economic bubble about to burst. Th Hill, October 14.

Cohen B. (1963). The Press and Foreign Policy. Princeton University Press: Princeton.

De Vreese C.H. (2005). News framing: Theory and typology. Information Design Journal, Vol. 13(1), pp. 51–62.

Entman R.M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, Vol. 43, pp. 51–58.

Entman R.M. (2003). Cascading activation: Contesting the White House’s frame after 9/11. Political Communication, Vol. 20, pp. 415–432.

Entman R.M. (2004). Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Entman R.M. (2007). Framing bias: Media in the distribution of power. Journal of Communication, Vol. 57, pp. 163–173.

Entman R.M. (2010). Media framing biases and political power: Explaining slant in news of Campaign 2008. Journalism, Vol. 11(4), pp. 389–408.

Fiske S.T., Taylor S.E. (1991). Social Cognition. McGraw-Hill: New York.

Gamson W. (1992). Talking Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Gamson W.A., Lasch K.E. (1983). The political culture of social welfare policy. In: S.E. Spiro, E. Yuchtman-Yaar (Eds.), Evaluating the Welfare State: Social and Political Perspectives. Academic Press: San Diego, pp. 397–415.

Gamson W.A., Modigliani A. (1987). The changing culture of affirmative action. In: R.G. Braungart, M.M. Braungart (Eds.), Research in Political Sociology, Vol. 3, JAI Press: Greenwich, pp. 137–177.

Gamson W.A., Modigliani A. (1989). Media discourse and public opinion: A constructionist approach. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 95, pp. 1–37.

Gans H. (1979). Deciding What’s News. Pantheon Books: New York.

Garzia D. (2011). The personalization of politics in Western democracies: Causes and consequences on leader–follower relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 22(4), pp. 697–709.

Gitlin T (1980). The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left University of California Press: Berkeley.

Goffan E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Harper & Row: New York.

Gross K., D’Ambrosio L. (2004). Framing emotional response. Political Psychology, Vol. 25(1), pp. 1–29.

Haddon H. (2015). In New Hampshire, Ted Cruz keeps up attack on Federal Reserve. The Wall Street Journal, November 11.

Harwood J. (2015). Huckabee: DC-Wall Street is like a strip club. CNBC, October 16.

Iyengar S., Simon A. (1993). News coverage of the Gulf Crisis and public opinion – a study of agenda-setting, priming, and framing. Communication Research, Vol. 20, pp. 365–383.

Kahneman D., Tversky A. (1979). Prospect theory – analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, Vol. 47, pp. 263–291.

Kahneman D., Tversky A. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, Vol. 211(4481), pp. 453–458.

Kahneman D., Tversky A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, Vol. 39, pp. 341–350.

Kim S.H., Scheufele D.A., Shanahan J. (2002). Think about it this way: Attribute agenda-setting function of the press and the public’s evaluation of a local issue. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 79(1), pp. 7–25.

Lerer L., Rugaber Ch.S. (2016). Sanders vowing to break up banks during first year in office. Associated Press, January 5.

Lopez L. (2015). Watching Ted Cruz talk to a room full of Wall Streeters is about as awkward as expected. Business Insider, July 15.

McCombs M., Ghanem S.I. (2001). Th convergence of agenda setting and framing. In: S.D. Reese, O. Gandy, A.E. Grant (Eds.), Framing Public Life. Erlbaum: Mahwah, pp. 67–82.

Neuman W.R., Just M.R., Crigler A.N. (1992). Common Knowledge. News and the Construction of Political Meaning. Th University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Pan Z., Kosicki G.M. (1993). Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Political Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 55–75.

Popper N. (2015a). A plunge in China rattles markets across the globe. Th New York Times, August 23.

Popper N. (2015b). Wall St. policy poses a challenge for presidential candidates. The New York Times, August 3.

Price V., Tewksbury D., Powers E. (1997). Switching trains of thought: Th impact of news frames on readers’ cognitive responses. Communication Research, Vol. 24, pp. 481–506.

Radio Iowa. (2015). Huckabee says Wall Street woes reminiscent of ‘08, August 26.

RealClearPolitics. (2013). Huckabee: 50–50 Chance on Running for President in 2016, December 22.

Reese S.D. (2001). Prologue – framing public life. In: S.D. Reese, O.H. Gandy, A.E. Grant. (Eds.), Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah.

Sanders B. (2015). Bernie Sanders: To rein in Wall Street, fix the Fed. The New York Times, December 23.

Scheufele D.A (2000). Agenda-setting, priming, and framing revisited: Another look at cognitive effcts of political communication. Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 3(2/3), pp. 297–316.

Scheufele D.A., Tewksbury D. (2007). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: Th evolution of three media effcts models. Journal of Communication, Vol. 57, pp. 9–20.

Semetko H.A., Valkenburg P.M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication, Vol. 50(2), pp. 93–109.

Shoemaker P.J., Reese S.D. (1996). Mediating the Message: Thories of Influences on Mass Media Content. Longman: New York.

TIME. (2016). Sen. Rand Paul: Th Fed is crippling America, January 10.

Weigel D. (2015). After interest rate announcement. Rand Paul compares Federal Reserve to Soviet Politburo. Th Washington Post, December 16.

Data publikacji: 2019-10-16 16:31:04
Data złożenia artykułu: 2017-12-04 16:36:48


Total abstract view - 676
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 0



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Tomasz Gackowski

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.