Age Limits in the Service of the Roman Army – lex Aelia Sentia and lex Visellia

Wojciech J. Kosior

Abstract


In ancient Rome at the beginning of the first century A.D., a number of reforms in the field of personal rights were carried out. At that time, the lex Aelia Sentia was passed, which limited the liberation of slaves. During this period, lex Visellia also was passed, which tempted former slaves with Roman citizenship in exchange for serving in the army. The purpose of this article was an attempt to determine whether it can be said that the title acts, i.e. lex Aelia Sentia and lex Visellia, have a common goal and, in fact, part of their records together created one legal concept that was to ensure easy access of recruits to the newly formed paramilitary organisation militia vigilum, to which, after the civil war and general recruitment crisis in the army, there were no volunteers.


Keywords


lex Aelia Sentia; lex Visellia; vigiles; Latini iuniani

References


Aicher P.J., Rome Alive: A Source-Guide to the Ancient City, Vol. 1, Wauconda 2008.

Alföldy G., Die Freilassung von Sklaven und die Struktur der Sklaverei in der römischen Kaiserzeit, „Rivista storica dell’Antichità“ 1972, n. 2.

Alföldy G., Historia społeczna starożytnego Rzymu, Poznań 1991.

Atkinson K.M.T., The Purpose of the Manumission Laws of Augustus, “Irish Jurist” 1966, Vol. 1.

Baillie Reynolds P.K., The Vigiles of Imperial Rome, Oxford 1926.

Balestri Fumagalli M., Lex Iunia de manumissionibus, Milan 1985.

Birley A.R., The People of Roman Britain, Berkeley–Los Angeles 1979.

Borbonus D., Columbarium Tombs and Collective Identity in Augustan Rome, Cambridge 2014.

Buckland W.W., A Text-Book of Roman Law: From Augustus to Justinian, Cambridge 1963.

Buckland W.W., The Roman Law of Slavery: The Condition of the Slave in Private Law from Augustus to Justinian, Cambridge 1908.

C. Suetonii Tranquilli Opera, Vol. I, Libri V, ed. M. Ihm, Leipzig 1907.

Caroll M., Spirits of the Dead. Roman Funerary Commemoration in the Western Europe, Cambridge 2006.

Cary E., Foster H.B., Dio’s Roman History. Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Vol. VI (Book LV), New York 1955 (reprint).

Cornelii Taciti Annalium ab excessu divi Augusti libri, ed. Ch.D. Fisher, Oxford 1906.

Daugherty G.N., The Cohortes Vigilum and the Great Fire of 64 AD, “The Classical Journal” 1992, Vol. 87(3).

Dąbrowa E., Organizacja armii rzymskiej w okresie Wczesnego Cesarstwa, [in:] Starożytny Rzym we współczesnych badaniach. Państwo – społeczeństwo – gospodarka. Liber in memoriam Lodovici Piotrowicz, red. J. Wolski, T. Kotula, A. Kunisz, Kraków 1994.

Dixon S., Childhood, Class and Kin in the Roman World, London–New York 2001.

Dominicis M. de, I latini iuniani nel pensiero del legislatore romano, “Annali Perugia” 1972, n. 1.

Dominicis M. de, La “Latinitas Iuniana” e la Legge Elia Senzia, “The Legal History Review” 1965, Vol. 33(4), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157181965X00287.

Dominicis M. de, Les Latins Juniens dans la pensée du legislateur romain, “RIDA” 1973, Vol. 20.

Duff M., Freedmen in the Early Roman Empire, Cambridge 1958.

Fabre G., Libertus. Recherches sur les rapports patron-affranchi à la fin de la république Romaine, Roma 1981.

Garnsey P., Child-rearing in ancient Italy, [in:] Cities, Peasants and Food in Classical Antiquity. Essays in Social and Economic History, ed. W. Scheidel, Cambridge 1998.

Garnsey P., Independent freedmen and the economy of Roman Italy under the Principate, [in:] Cities, Peasants and Food in Classical Antiquity. Essays in Social and Economic History, ed. W. Scheidel, Cambridge 1998.

Giménez-Candela T., Bemerkungen über Freilassungen in consilio, „Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Romanistische Abteilung“ 1996, Vol. 113(1), DOI: https://doi.org/10.7767/zrgra.1996.113.1.64.

Grabowski P., Strażacy z Wiecznego Miasta, „Przegląd Pożarniczy” 2005, nr 12.

Harris W.V., Towards a Study of the Roman Slave Trade, “Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. The Seaborne Commerce of Ancient Rome: Studies in Archaeology and History” 1980, Vol. 36, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/4238700.

Herrmann-Otto E., Ex Ancilla Natus. Untersuchungen zu den ‘Hausgeborenen’ Sklaven und Sklavinnen im Westen des römischen Kaiserreiches, Stuttgart 1994.

Herrmann-Otto E., Slaves and freedmen, [in:] The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome, ed. P. Erdkamp, Cambridge 2013.

Hirt M., In search of Junian Latins, “Historia” 2018, Vol. 67(3), DOI: https://doi.org/10.25162/historia-2018-0011.

Hunt P., Ancient Greek and Roman Slavery, Malden 2018.

Jaczynowska M., Historia starożytnego Rzymu, Warszawa 1983.

Kaser M., Handbuch des Römischen Privatrechtes. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft. Das altrömische, das vorklassische und klassische Recht, München 1971.

Kołodko P., The Powers and Significance of the Prefect of the ‘Vigiles’ (‘Praefectus Vigilum’) in Ancient Rome, „Zeszyty Prawnicze UKSW” 2012, nr 4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21697/zp.2012.12.4.10.

Koops E., Masters and Freedmen: Junian Latins and the Struggle for Citizenship, [in:] Integration in Rome and in the Roman World: Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Lille, June 23–25, 2011), eds. G. de Kleijn, S. Benoist, Leiden–Boston 2014.

Kosior W.J., G. 1,17 i G. 1,38. Uwagi na tle społecznych i demograficznych uwarunkowań ustawy „Aelia Sentia”, „Łódzkie Studia Teologiczne” 2018, nr 2.

Kosior W.J., Kategorie i granice wieku oraz ich znaczenie w prawie rzymskim, Warszawa 2018 (unpublished doctoral dissertation).

Kuryłowicz M., Wiliński A., Rzymskie prawo prywatne. Zarys wykładu, Warszawa 2016.

Mantovani D., Legum multitudo e diritto privato. Revisione critica della tesi di Giovanni Rotondi, [in:] Leges publicae. La legge nell’esperienza giuridica romana. Collegio di diritto romano 2010. Cedant, a cura di Jean-Louis Ferrary, a cura di J.-L. Ferrary, Pavia 2012.

Mouritsen H., The Freedman in the Roman World, Cambridge 2011.

Osuchowski W., Zarys rzymskiego prawa prywatnego, Warszawa 1971.

Passerini A., Le Coorti Pretorie, Roma 1939.

Rainbird J.S., The Fire Stations of Imperial Rome, “Papers of the British School at Rome” 1986, Vol. 54, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068246200008874.

Rainbird J.S., The Vigiles of Rome, Durham 1976.

Rawson B., Weaver P., The Roman Family in Italy: Status, Sentiment, Space, Oxford 1999.

Ricci C., Security in Roman Times: Rome, Italy and the Emperors, New York 2018.

Robleda O., Il diritto degli schiavi nell’antica Roma, Roma 1976.

Rotondi G., Leges Publicae Populi Romani. Elenco cronologico con una introduzione sull’attività legislativa dei comizi romani, Milano 1912.

Rutledge S.H., Imperial Inquisitions: Prosecutors and Informants from Tiberius to Domitian, London–New York 2001.

Scheidel W., The Roman slave supply, 2007, www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/pdfs/scheidel/050704.pdf [access: 10.08.2019].

Schipp O., Der großzügige Patron Gajus Seccius. Eine Fallstudie zur Lex Aelia Sentia und ihren Folgen für unter 30-jährige Freigelassene,“Mainzer Zeitschrift” 2017, Bd. 112.

Schumacher L., Niewolnictwo antyczne, Poznań 2005.

Sherwin-White A.N., The Roman Citizenship, Oxford 1973.

Sirks A.J.B., Informal Manumission and the lex Junia, “RIDA” 1981, Vol. 28.

Sirks A.J.B., The lex Junia and the Effects of Informal Manumission and Iteration, “RIDA” 1983, Vol. 30.

Sitek B., Tabula Heracleensis (Lex Iulia municipalis). Tekst, tłumaczenie, komentarz, Olsztyn 2006.

Świrgoń-Skok R., Zagadnienie obywatelstwa niewolnika ustanowionego spadkobiercą w testamencie rzymskim, „Humanistyczne Zeszyty Naukowe Prawa Człowieka” 2014, nr 17.

Treggiari S., Roman Marriage. Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian, Oxford 1991.

Vademecum historyka starożytnej Grecji i Rzymu, red. E. Wipszycka, t. 1, Warszawa 1985.

Venturini C., “Latini facti”, “peregrini” e “civitas”: note sulla normativa adrianea, “BIDR” 1995–1996, Vol. 37–38.

Verboven K., The Freedman Economy of Roman Italy, [in:] Free At Last!: The Impact of Freed Slaves on the Roman Empire, eds. T. Ramsby, S. Bell, London 2012.

Westermann W.L., The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity, Philadelphia 1955.

Wiliński A., Zur Frage von Latinern ex lege Aelia Sentia, „Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Romanistische Abteilung“ 1963, Vol. 80(1), DOI: https://doi.org/10.7767/zrgra.1963.80.1.378.

Williamson C., The Laws of the Roman People: Public Law in the Expansion and Decline of the Roman Republic, Ann Arbor 2005.

Zabłocka M., Polityka dynastii julijsko-klaudyjskiej wobec wyzwoleń i wyzwoleńców, „Prawo Kanoniczne” 1984, nr 1–2.

Zabłocka M., Przemiany prawa osobowego i rodzinnego w ustawodawstwie dynastii julijsko-klaudyjskiej, Warszawa 1987.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/sil.2019.28.3.23-39
Data publikacji: 2019-12-21 14:52:18
Data złożenia artykułu: 2019-01-30 20:55:05


Statistics

Total abstract view - 408
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 0 PDF (Język Polski) - 0

Indicators



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Wojciech J. Kosior

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.