Banks Ownership and Development Indicators Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic. A Comparative Study

Marta Postuła, Stanisław Flejterski

Abstract


Theoretical background: The role of banks in the economy has attracted scientific interest for many centuries now. Generally speaking, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been widely discussed. Many studies investigated the links between the development of the financial sector and a given country’s social and economic growth using econometric methods such as cross-section, time series, panel data, company-level, industry-level and country level. The banking sector is an integral part of the economy and plays a key role in its development.

Purpose of the article: The ownership status of financial institutions is not neutral for themselves or for their clients. The research problem deals with analysing the impact of ownership changes in the banking and insurance sector on the economic and social development of selected countries, especially in Poland, measured with basic macroeconomic indicators. The article attempts to verify the hypothesis that the ownership structure in banking and insurance institutions has, contemporarily, no significant impact on the socio-economic development indicators, provided that these institutions are guided by business- rather than policy-based criteria in their decision making process.

Research methods: Both qualitative and quantitative research was used to empirically verify the hypotheses in question. Qualitative research is based on descriptive analysis while quantitative research will include statistical information systemization method, based on statistical source data analysis, and static dependence methodology, including fixed effects and random effects panel models.

Main findings: Literature studies and research show that moderation and pragmatism are needed in the financial sectors of EU countries, including Poland. We need both public (including state-owned) financial institutions (banks and insurers) and those controlled by private capital. It seems that today it would be difficult to accept that the entire financial sector of a given country would be taken over by public institutions – state-owned companies, and the omnipotence of private institutions would also be problematic. The main issue is proportions: instead of the exclusivity of one or the other form of ownership, one has to seek an intelligent balance between them (“this and that” instead of “either-or”).


Keywords


banking institutions; ownership; GDP per capita; efficiency; banking profits

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/h.2022.56.4.23-39
Date of publication: 2023-03-14 22:43:24
Date of submission: 2022-11-07 14:53:11


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