Pre-Settlement Risk Limits for Non-Financial Counterparty in the Polish Over-the-Counter Derivatives Market

Piotr Wybieralski


Theoretical background: The 2008/2009 financial crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in 2020 or the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, all these affected market volatility causing greater interest in counterparty credit risk (CCR) management especially in the OTC derivatives market. This study investigates selected method to mitigate the CCR, namely the application of various risk limits. The research is focused particularly on the pre-settlement risk that financial institutions face after transaction conclusion until the contract’s final settlement. Instead of one single limit there may be a wide range of different treasury limits (a multiple treasury limit setup) applied not only to cover the credit exposure but also to support and enhance the entire market risk management process and day-to-day operations in the financial institutions.

Purpose of the article: The paper examines treasury limits employed to manage pre-settlement risk in the Polish OTC derivatives market in the relation between financial institution and non-financial institution. The current literature on this subject includes works on various risk limits, especially in the Polish inter-bank market, however, there is still no broader view on this topic from the analysed perspective. The study indicates different pre-settlement risk limits to be applied in practice both for daily and credit-related transactions considering multiple determinants, such as counterparty and financial instrument type, asset class or collateral form.

Research methods: Research methods comprise the analysis of guidelines and recommendations of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority as well as reports, documents and market risk management principles of selected financial institutions. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of legal backgrounds on treasury limits in Poland and bank’s sources, such as master agreements, general conditions of cooperation in the field of treasury products, regulations, information brochures, etc. Selected data from the 2022 Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and OTC Derivatives Market Activity in Poland is used in the context analysis.

Main findings: Different determinants of pre-settlement risk limit setup are identified and on this basis a directory of pre-settlement treasury limits is developed. The paper indicates also some challenges related to their practical application, concerning, for instance, the breaches of contractual terms (events of default), timely renewal of treasury limit or issues regarding the market risk estimation.


counterparty credit risk; financial risk management; pre-settlement risk limits; VaR limits; OTC derivatives market

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Data publikacji: 2023-05-22 13:42:42
Data złożenia artykułu: 2022-11-25 13:13:49


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