Dimensions of the Country of Origin Effect and their Measurement

Ewa Magier-Łakomy, Monika Boguszewicz-Kreft


The influence of the country’s images on consumer attitudes has been defined as the country of origin effect. The aim of the paper was to verify a hypothesis about multi-dimensionality of COO effect. Four dimensions have been introduced: innovativeness, diversity, quality, prestige. The data have been collected with the use of the survey questionnaire. Analysis of variance and t-test have been applied. Although the evaluation is rather globally oriented (positively or negatively), the differentiation of the evaluations from particular countries depending on the criteria confirms multidimensional character of COO effect. The knowledge about how the evaluation of particular dimensions of the COO is shaped may prove helpful in development of marketing strategies in foreign markets.


country-of-origin (COO) effect; country of origin image; COO effect’s dimensions; attitude; Polish consumers; consumers’ behaviour

Full Text:



Al-Sulaiti K.I., Baker M.J., Country of origin effects: a literature review, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 1998, Vol. 16, No. 3.


Balabanis G., Diamantopoulos A., Brand Origin Identification by Consumers: A Classification Perspective, Journal of International Marketing, 2008, Vol. 16, No. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jimk.16.1.39

Balabanis G., Diamantopoulos A., Gains and Losses from the Misperception of Brand Origin: The Role of Brand Strength and Country-of-Origin Image, Journal of International Marketing, June 2011, Vol. 19, No. 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jimk.19.2.95

Bikely W.J. and Nes E., Country of Origin Effects on Product Evaluations, Journal of International Business Studies, 1982, Vol. 1, No. 3.

Bloemer J, Brijs K., Kasper H., The COOELM Model: A Theoretical Framework for the Cognitive Processes Underlying Country of Origin-Effects, European Journal of Marketing, 2009, Vol. 43, No. 1/2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090560910923247

Bose S., Ponnam A., Country of origin effect on services: an evaluation of entertainment, Managing Leisure, 2011, Vol. 16, No. 2.


Hong S.-T., Wyer R.S. Jr., Effects of country-of-origin and product-attribute information on product evaluation: An information processing perspective, Journal of Consumer Research, September 1989, Vol. 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209206

Javalgi R.G., Cutler B.D., Winans W., At your service! Does country of origin research apply to services, Journal of Services Marketing, 2001, Vol. 15, No. 6/7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08876040110407491

Johansson J.K., Douglas S.P., Nonaka I., Assessing the Impact of Country-of-Origin on Product Evaluations: A New Methodological Perspective, Journal of Marketing Research, 1985, Vol. 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151584

Laroche M., Papadopoulos N., Heslop L.A., Mourali M., The influence of country image structure on consumer evaluations of foreign products, International Marketing Review 2005,Vol. 22, No. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330510581190

Leippe M.R., Zimbardo P., Psychologia zmiany postaw i wpływu społecznego, Poznań, Zysk i S-ka, 2004.

Liczmańska K., Efekt kraju pochodzenia produktu a decyzje nabywcze konsumentów sektora alkoholi wysoko procentowych, Roczniki Ekonomiczne Kujawsko-Pomorskiej Szkoły Wyższej w Bydgoszczy, 2010, Vol. 3.

Melnyk V., Klein K., Völckner F., The Double-Edged Sword of Foreign Brand Names for Companies from Emerging Countries, Journal of Marketing, 2012, Vol. 76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jm.11.0349

Meng J.G., Nasco S.A., Clark T., Measuring Country-of-Origin Effects in Caucasians, African-Americans and Chinese Consumers for Products and Services, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 2007, Vol. 20, No. 2.

Peterson R.A., Jolibert A.J.P., A meta-analysis of country-of-origin effects, Journal of International Business Studies, 1995, Vol. 26, No. 4.


Pharr J.M., Synthesizing Country-of-Origin Research from the Last Decade: Is the Concept Still Salient in an Era of Global Brands?, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 2005, Vol. 13, No. 4.

Rezvani S., Dehkordi G.J., Rahman M.S., Fouladivanda F., Habibi M., Eghtebasi S., A Conceptual Study on the Country of Origin Effect on Consumer Purchase Intention, Asian Social Science, 2012, Vol. 8, No. 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ass.v8n12p205

Roth K.P., Diamantopoulos A., Advancing the country image construct, Journal of Business Research, 2009, Vol. 62.


Saran R., Gupta N., Country of Origin Vs. Consumer Perception: A Literature Review, IUP Journal of Marketing Management, 2012, Vol. 11, No. 4.

Schooler R.D., Product bias in the Central American Common Market, Journal of Marketing Research, 1965, Vol. 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3149486

Sikora T., Znaczenie efektu kraju pochodzenia dla komunikacji w biznesie międzynarodowym, Zeszyty Naukowe SGH, 2008, Vol. 23.

Wojciszke B., Psychologia Społeczna, Warszawa, Scholar, 2011.

Verlegh P., Steenkamp J., A review of Meta Analysis of Country of Origin Research, Journal of Economic Psychology, 1999, Vol. 20.


Zhou L., Yang Z., Hui M.K., Non-Local or Local Brands? A Multi-Level Investigation into Confidence in Brand Origin Identification and Its Strategic Implications, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 2010, Vol. 38, No. 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11747-009-0153-1

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17951/h.2015.49.3.125
Data publikacji: 2015-08-12 10:29:43
Data złożenia artykułu: 2015-08-12 09:31:29


Total abstract view - 1469
Downloads (from 2020-06-17) - PDF - 0



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Ewa Magier-Łakomy, Monika Boguszewicz-Kreft

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.